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Title: High Resolution Dopant Profiles Revealed by Atom Probe Tomography and STEM-EBIC for CdTe Based Solar Cells

Abstract

Segregated elements and their diffusion profiles within grain boundaries and interfaces resulting from post deposition heat treatments are revealed using atom probe tomography (APT), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and electron beam induced current (EBIC) techniques. The results demonstrate how these techniques complement each other to provide conclusive evidence for locations of space charge regions and mechanisms that create them at the nanoscale. Most importantly, a Cl dopant profile that extends ~5 nm into CdTe grains interfacing the CdS is shown using APT and STEM synergy, which has been shown to push the pn-junction into the CdTe layer indicative of a homojunction (revealed by STEM EBIC). In addition, Cu and Cl concentrations within grain boundaries within several nms and µms from the CdS/CdTe interface are compared, Na segregation of <0.1% is detected, and S variations of ~1–3% are witnessed between CdTe grains close to the CdS/CdTe interface. The segregation and diffusion of these elements directly impacts on the material properties, such as band gap energy and n/p type properties. Optimization of the interfacial and grain boundary doping will lead to higher efficiency solar cells.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1240533
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1337338
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 150; Journal ID: ISSN 0927-0248
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Poplawsky, Jonathan D., Li, Chen, Paudel, Naba, Guo, Wei, Yan, Yanfa, and Pennycook, Stephen J. High Resolution Dopant Profiles Revealed by Atom Probe Tomography and STEM-EBIC for CdTe Based Solar Cells. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.02.004.
Poplawsky, Jonathan D., Li, Chen, Paudel, Naba, Guo, Wei, Yan, Yanfa, & Pennycook, Stephen J. High Resolution Dopant Profiles Revealed by Atom Probe Tomography and STEM-EBIC for CdTe Based Solar Cells. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2016.02.004
Poplawsky, Jonathan D., Li, Chen, Paudel, Naba, Guo, Wei, Yan, Yanfa, and Pennycook, Stephen J. 2016. "High Resolution Dopant Profiles Revealed by Atom Probe Tomography and STEM-EBIC for CdTe Based Solar Cells". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2016.02.004. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1240533.
@article{osti_1240533,
title = {High Resolution Dopant Profiles Revealed by Atom Probe Tomography and STEM-EBIC for CdTe Based Solar Cells},
author = {Poplawsky, Jonathan D. and Li, Chen and Paudel, Naba and Guo, Wei and Yan, Yanfa and Pennycook, Stephen J.},
abstractNote = {Segregated elements and their diffusion profiles within grain boundaries and interfaces resulting from post deposition heat treatments are revealed using atom probe tomography (APT), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and electron beam induced current (EBIC) techniques. The results demonstrate how these techniques complement each other to provide conclusive evidence for locations of space charge regions and mechanisms that create them at the nanoscale. Most importantly, a Cl dopant profile that extends ~5 nm into CdTe grains interfacing the CdS is shown using APT and STEM synergy, which has been shown to push the pn-junction into the CdTe layer indicative of a homojunction (revealed by STEM EBIC). In addition, Cu and Cl concentrations within grain boundaries within several nms and µms from the CdS/CdTe interface are compared, Na segregation of <0.1% is detected, and S variations of ~1–3% are witnessed between CdTe grains close to the CdS/CdTe interface. The segregation and diffusion of these elements directly impacts on the material properties, such as band gap energy and n/p type properties. Optimization of the interfacial and grain boundary doping will lead to higher efficiency solar cells.},
doi = {10.1016/j.solmat.2016.02.004},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1240533}, journal = {Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells},
issn = {0927-0248},
number = ,
volume = 150,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}

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Cited by: 7 works
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Works referencing / citing this record:

Defect interactions and the role of complexes in the CdTe solar cell absorber
journal, January 2017


Effect of selenium and chlorine co-passivation in polycrystalline CdSeTe devices
journal, October 2019


Managing dose-, damage- and data-rates in multi-frame spectrum-imaging
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Monte Carlo simulation of CdTe thin film recrystallization process during chlorine activation
journal, January 2020


Grain boundary passivation by CdCl2 treatment in CdTe solar cells revealed by Kelvin probe force microscopy
journal, October 2018