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Title: Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, United States
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Chemical Reviews
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 10; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-31 09:47:43; Journal ID: ISSN 0009-2665
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Laskin, Alexander, Laskin, Julia, and Nizkorodov, Sergey A. Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1021/cr5006167.
Laskin, Alexander, Laskin, Julia, & Nizkorodov, Sergey A. Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon. United States. doi:10.1021/cr5006167.
Laskin, Alexander, Laskin, Julia, and Nizkorodov, Sergey A. 2015. "Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon". United States. doi:10.1021/cr5006167.
title = {Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon},
author = {Laskin, Alexander and Laskin, Julia and Nizkorodov, Sergey A.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1021/cr5006167},
journal = {Chemical Reviews},
number = 10,
volume = 115,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 2

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1021/cr5006167

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 162works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • Organic carbon (OC) accounts for a large fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing. Molecular composition of the OC and its evolution during common processes of atmospheric aging have been a subject of extensive research over the last decade (see reviews of Ervens et al.,1 Hallquist et al.,2 Herckes et al.,3 Carlton et al.,4 Kroll and Seinfeld,5 Rudich et al.,6 and Kanakidou et al.7). Even though many fundamental advances have been reported in these studies, our understanding of the climate-related properties of atmospheric OC is still incomplete and the specific waysmore » in which OC impacts atmospheric environment and climate forcing are just beginning to be understood. This review covers one topic of particular interest in this area –environmental chemistry of light-absorbing aerosol OC and its impact on radiative forcing.« less
  • Lag Ba'Omer, a nationwide bonfire festival in Israel, was chosen as a case study to investigate the influence of a major biomass burning event on the light absorption properties of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC). The chemical composition and optical properties of BrC chromophores were investigated using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) platform coupled to photo diode array (PDA) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) detectors. Substantial increase of BrC light absorption coefficient was observed during the night-long biomass burning event. Most chromophores observed during the event were attributed to nitroaromatic compounds, comprising 28 elemental formulas of at least 63more » structural isomers. The NAC, in combination, accounted for 50-80% of the total visible light absorption (> 400 nm) by solvent extractable BrC. The results highlight that NAC, particular nitrophenols, are important light absorption contributors of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), suggesting that night time chemistry of ·NO 3 and N 2O 5 with particles may play a significant role in atmospheric transformations of BrC. Nitrophenols and related compounds were especially important chromophores of BBOA. The absorption spectra of the BrC chromophores are influenced by the extraction solvent and solution pH, implying that the aerosol acidity is an important factor controlling the light absorption properties of BrC.« less
    Cited by 1
  • We use thermochemical equilibrium calculations to model iron, magnesium, and silicon chemistry in the atmospheres of giant planets, brown dwarfs, extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), and low-mass stars. The behavior of individual Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of temperature, pressure, and metallicity. Our equilibrium results are thus independent of any particular model atmosphere. The condensation of Fe metal strongly affects iron chemistry by efficiently removing Fe-bearing species from the gas phase. Monatomic Fe is the most abundant Fe-bearing gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs, and in the deep atmospheres of giantmore » planets and T dwarfs. Mg- and Si-bearing gases are effectively removed from the atmosphere by forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) cloud formation. Monatomic Mg is the dominant magnesium gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Silicon monoxide (SiO) is the most abundant Si-bearing gas in the deep atmospheres of brown dwarfs and EGPs, whereas SiH{sub 4} is dominant in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter and other gas giant planets. Several other Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases become increasingly important with decreasing effective temperature. In principle, a number of Fe, Mg, and Si gases are potential tracers of weather or diagnostic of temperature in substellar atmospheres.« less
  • Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NO x photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ~15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular compositionmore » of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C 14.1H 14.5O 5.1N 0.08 to C 11.8H 14.9O 4.5N 0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O 3 SOA (LIM/O 3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O 3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.« less
  • This article reports on the thermogravimetric investigation of mixtures of titanium no. 2 and carbon black with various mass carbon contents. Adding carbon black (as opposed to boron) to titanium leads to an increase in the rate of heat release of the oxidation reaction. An attempt is made to clarify the low-temperature oxidation mechanism of titanium mixtures in air. An x-ray phase and chemical (for bound carbon) analysis of specimens of a stoichiometric Ti + C mixture after heating in air to a temperature of 650/sup 0/C at the rate of 10/sup 0//min was conducted. The results indicate that themore » oxidation of the titanium-carbon mixture probably proceeds according to a more complex mechanism associated with the transport of the gaseous carbon oxidation products and their participation in the titanium oxidation.« less