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Title: Characterization of Shales and Fluid Flow through Shale Matrix and Fractures

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1239919
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-21224
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: SINTEF Shale School ; 2016-02-03 - 2016-02-04 ; Trondheim, Norway
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Earth Sciences; Energy Sciences; hydraulic fracturing, fracture behavior

Citation Formats

Carey, James William. Characterization of Shales and Fluid Flow through Shale Matrix and Fractures. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Carey, James William. Characterization of Shales and Fluid Flow through Shale Matrix and Fractures. United States.
Carey, James William. Mon . "Characterization of Shales and Fluid Flow through Shale Matrix and Fractures". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1239919.
@article{osti_1239919,
title = {Characterization of Shales and Fluid Flow through Shale Matrix and Fractures},
author = {Carey, James William},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 29 00:00:00 EST 2016},
month = {Mon Feb 29 00:00:00 EST 2016}
}

Conference:
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  • The main value of quantitative 2-D and 3-D basin models for petroleum exploration is their ability to predict expulsion and migration of hydrocarbons on a basin scale. However, existing basin models rely on matrix permeabilities in calculating fluid flow, generally ignoring the contributions of fracture permeability. Fracture permeability may in fact be much larger than matrix permeability, particularly for fine-grained rocks. Wherever significant fracturing occurs, ignoring fracture permeability may cause errors in prediction of groundwater flow rates and directions, caprock permeabilities, migration pathways for hydrocarbons, and thermal history. The authors have developed a method that estimates the formation of tectonicmore » fractures during basin simulations. They evaluate the strain between horizontally adjacent nodes and estimate the number of fractures that will occur as a function of rock ductility, fracture orientation, throw on fracture surfaces, and fracture aperture. Their model is capable of considering stresses induced by both block faulting and by concentric folding. The authors can calculate fracture-system permeability in two different ways: (1) directly from strain using an empirical calibration, and (2) from consideration of fracture aperture, density, and orientation. Finally, they calculate total permeability as the sum of matrix permeability and porosity-weighted fracture-network permeability. They simulate diagenetic and tectonic closure of fractures using a first-order decay equation to describe the reduction of fault aperture through time. Predictions of this model have been successfully compared against those of a model based entirely on tectonic stresses.« less
  • Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing), to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid-heat system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. Reliable performance predictions ofmore » EGS reservoirs require accurate and robust modeling for strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes. Conventionally, these types of problems have been solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulators with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. An alternative approach is to solve the system of nonlinear partial differential equations that govern multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, and rock mechanics simultaneously, using a fully coupled, fully implicit solution procedure, in which all solution variables (pressure, enthalpy, and rock displacement fields) are solved simultaneously. This paper describes numerical simulations used to investigate the poro- and thermal- elastic effects of working fluid injection and thermal energy extraction on the properties of the fractures and rock matrix of a hypothetical EGS reservoir, using a novel simulation software FALCON (Podgorney et al., 2011), a finite element based simulator solving fully coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, rock deformation, and fracturing using a global implicit approach. Investigations are also conducted on how these poro- and thermal-elastic effects are related to fracture permeability evolution.« less
  • Recently, the flow of fluids into a fracture from a point source has been the subject of several different papers. Cleary and Fonseca first suggested that convective transport should play a major role in the placement of proppant when the flow into a fracture was from a point source. Clark and Courington presented data showing that for non-viscosified fluids convection was the dominant mechanism of transport. However, they showed, that for uniform fractures, viscosifying the fluid made a large difference in the transport mechanism. In a later paper, Clark and Zhu presented data for nonuniform fractures and viscosified fluids weightedmore » with either salt or silica flour that showed that the presence of minor non-uniformities serve to negate the effect of convection even more than viscosifying the fluids. In this work, the authors have extended the work presented in the previous two papers to high viscosity Newtonian fluids and crosslinked fluids. The experiments have all been done with various concentrations of silica flour to simulate added proppant. Both changing the nature of the non-uniformities and crosslinking the polymer solution have a profound affect on the flow into the fracture and the convective process.« less
  • Recently, the flow of fluids into a fracture from a point source has been the subject of several different papers. Cleary and Fonseca first suggested that convective transport should play a major role in the placement of proppant when the flow into a fracture was from a point source. Clark and Courington presented data showing that for non-viscosified fluids convection was the dominant mechanism of transport. However, they showed, that for uniform fractures, viscosifying the fluid made a large difference in the transport mechanism. In a later paper, Clark and Zhu presented data for non-uniform fractures and viscosified fluids weightedmore » with either salt or silica flour that showed that the presence of minor non-uniformities serve to negate the effect of convection even more than viscosifying the fluids. In this work, the authors have extended the work presented in the previous two papers to high viscosity Newtonian fluids and crosslinked fluids. The experiments have all been done with various concentrations of silica flour to simulate added proppant. Both changing the nature of the non-uniformities and crosslinking the polymer solution have a profound affect on the flow into the fracture and the convective process.« less
  • Successful application of metal matrix composites often requires strength and lifetime predictions that account for the deformation of each constituent. However, the deformation of individual phases in composites usually differs significantly from their respective monolithic behaviors. For instance, generally little is known about the in-situ deformation of the metal matrix and fiber/matrix interface region, other than that it likely differs from the bulk material response. This article describes an approach to quantifying the in-situ deformation parameters using neutron diffraction measurements of matrix failure around a fiber fracture in a model composite consisting of an Al matrix and a single Al{submore » 2}O{sub 3} fiber. We also study the shear sliding resistance as it evolves through fiber fracture upon loading and unloading. Matching the stress/strain distributions predicted from micromechanical models to the measured strain distributions determined by neutron diffraction under applied tensile loading results in an estimate of the typically non-linear, stress-strain behavior of the metal matrix.« less