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Title: The Influence of Sliding and Contact Severity on the Generation of White Etching Cracks

Abstract

White etching cracks (WECs) have been identified as the dominant mechanism of premature failure for bearings within wind turbine gearboxes. Though WECs have been observed in the field for over a decade, the exact mechanisms which lead to this failure are still debated, and benchtop replication has proven difficult. In previously published work, WECs have been replicated only through the use of component level test rigs, where complete bearings are tested. In these tests, the factors that are thought to drive the formation of WECs, such as slide-to-roll ratio (SRR) and lubricant film thickness, cannot not be easily altered or controlled. In this paper, WECs have been replicated on a three rings on roller, benchtop test rig, which allowed for a direct investigation into the influence that SRR magnitude, sliding direction, and the lubricant film thickness have on surface failures and WEC generation. It was determined that WEC were formed in samples that experienced -30% SRR at various lubrication conditions, however, at lower levels of negative SRR and positive SRR up to 30% no white-etching cracks were observed.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
OSTI Identifier:
1237904
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Tribology Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 60; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1023-8883
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; 42 ENGINEERING; Bearing Failures; Microstructural Alterations; White Etching Cracks; Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings

Citation Formats

Gould, Benjamin, and Greco, Aaron. The Influence of Sliding and Contact Severity on the Generation of White Etching Cracks. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1007/s11249-015-0602-6.
Gould, Benjamin, & Greco, Aaron. The Influence of Sliding and Contact Severity on the Generation of White Etching Cracks. United States. doi:10.1007/s11249-015-0602-6.
Gould, Benjamin, and Greco, Aaron. Sat . "The Influence of Sliding and Contact Severity on the Generation of White Etching Cracks". United States. doi:10.1007/s11249-015-0602-6.
@article{osti_1237904,
title = {The Influence of Sliding and Contact Severity on the Generation of White Etching Cracks},
author = {Gould, Benjamin and Greco, Aaron},
abstractNote = {White etching cracks (WECs) have been identified as the dominant mechanism of premature failure for bearings within wind turbine gearboxes. Though WECs have been observed in the field for over a decade, the exact mechanisms which lead to this failure are still debated, and benchtop replication has proven difficult. In previously published work, WECs have been replicated only through the use of component level test rigs, where complete bearings are tested. In these tests, the factors that are thought to drive the formation of WECs, such as slide-to-roll ratio (SRR) and lubricant film thickness, cannot not be easily altered or controlled. In this paper, WECs have been replicated on a three rings on roller, benchtop test rig, which allowed for a direct investigation into the influence that SRR magnitude, sliding direction, and the lubricant film thickness have on surface failures and WEC generation. It was determined that WEC were formed in samples that experienced -30% SRR at various lubrication conditions, however, at lower levels of negative SRR and positive SRR up to 30% no white-etching cracks were observed.},
doi = {10.1007/s11249-015-0602-6},
journal = {Tribology Letters},
issn = {1023-8883},
number = 2,
volume = 60,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}