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Title: Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

Abstract

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery packmore » (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab., IL (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
12374
Report Number(s):
ANL/CMT/CP-98422
TRN: AH200120%%317
DOE Contract Number:
W-31109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Special Session on Electric Vehicle Technology, Seattle, WA (US), 05/09/1999--05/12/1999; Other Information: PBD: 12 Feb 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; ACCELERATION; EFFICIENCY; FUEL CELLS; GREENHOUSE GASES; INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; PROPULSION SYSTEMS; TRANSIENTS; HYBRID ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES

Citation Formats

Dees, D. W.. Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.. United States: N. p., 1999. Web.
Dees, D. W.. Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.. United States.
Dees, D. W.. Fri . "Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/12374.
@article{osti_12374,
title = {Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.},
author = {Dees, D. W.},
abstractNote = {Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Feb 12 00:00:00 EST 1999},
month = {Fri Feb 12 00:00:00 EST 1999}
}

Conference:
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  • Recent work on high energy density and mechanically rechargeable batteries and on testing E.V. batteries is described. Cyclic voltammetry studies of lead and lead dioxide in various sulfate electrolysis have led to improved discharge capacities while work on slurry electrodes has demonstrated the feasibility of a lead-acid battery which is capable of very rapid mechanical recharging. Tests of lead-acid batteries under electric vehicle conditions have shown high charge and energy efficiencies for regenerative braking and that the circulation of the electrolyte does not affect battery performance. 6 refs.
  • The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure themore » continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.« less
  • Optima Batteries, Inc. is currently in development of a high power (660 W/kg) spiral wound lead-acid 6V battery with a nominal capacity of 15 Ah. Its exceptional power and excellent thermal characteristics make it a promising choice for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The hybrid electric vehicle presents a new and unique challenge for energy storage systems. The batteries require high power for acceleration and hill climbing and good charge acceptance for regenerative braking and overall energy efficiency. Since the on board auxiliary power unit results in much lower demands for battery energy capacity, lead-acid batteries fit quite well into thesemore » performance requirements. Many of the remaining challenges involve the development of battery management systems which must function to maintain the battery pack at peak performance and achieve an economical cycle life. Related to the issue of battery management is information about conditions that may cause damage or unbalance of the pack. Experiments are described investigating the effects of extreme cell reversal on battery capacity and cycle life. The results demonstrate the amazing robustness of the lead-acid battery for tolerating over discharge.« less