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Title: Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

 [1];  [2]
  1. (Jon) D [ORNL
  2. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: 18th Symposium on Separation Science and Technology for Energy Applications, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 20141027, 20141030
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Burns, Jonathan, and Boll, Rose Ann. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire. United States: N. p., 2015. Web.
Burns, Jonathan, & Boll, Rose Ann. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire. United States.
Burns, Jonathan, and Boll, Rose Ann. 2015. "Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire". United States. doi:.
title = {Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire},
author = {Burns, Jonathan and Boll, Rose Ann},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 1

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  • The recovery of 252Cf from palladium- 252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO 3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, whichmore » ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.« less
  • An improved /sup 252/Cf neutron source form has been developed to enhance containment of /sup 252/Cf during production of the sources and to lower the sale price of /sup 252/Cf sources by commercial encapsulators. Process steps are described for preparing califomnium oxide-palladium cermet powder by palladium chemical plating, fabrication of cermet pellets by pressing and sintering, fabrication of bare wire by rolling, and adjustment (reduction) of / sup 256/Cf linear concentration by roll cladding. /sup 252/Cf is distributed uniformly in the wires, which can be made in concentrations suitable for a full range of industrial source strengths (from 1 xmore » 10/sup 7/ to 2.6 x 10/sup 10/ n/ sec). These processes were developed in laboratory tests with stead-ins and /sup 252/Cf tracer, and were demonstrated with milligram quantities of /sup 252/Cf in the Target Fabrication Facility (TFF). Improved wire forming techniques are being developed to manufacture clad wire on a larger scale. (auth)« less
  • The recovery of platinum and palladium from automotive catalysts has been investigated by leaching in iodide solutions with oxidants including oxygen and iodine in an autoclave. An ammonium salt was presented in a neutral leaching solution as a key leaching reagent to achieve high recoveries of the platinum group metals (PGM). The effect of temperature, and concentrations of oxidants and of ammonium salt on the recovery of PGM was examined. Under the experimental conditions studied, the recovery of platinum and palladium was found to be greater than 95%. An economical assessment of this process has also been examined and discussed.
  • The US production of palladium has not exceeded 1000 kg per year while consumption has reached 46,000 kg per year. Experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a process heat that could be used to recover over 2000 kg per year of nonradioactive palladium and rhodium each from radioactive nuclear waste. The method is based on an essentially complete removal of ruthenium from the radioactive palladium and rhodium. Decay of 368-d /sup 106/Ru and its 30-s /sup 106/Rh daughter produces nonradioactive /sup 106/Pd while decay of 40-d /sup 103/Ru yields nonradioactive /sup 103/Rh. After an appropriate waiting period for themore » decay, separation of this nonradioactive palladium and rhodium from the remaining /sup 106/Ru gives a product suitable for unrestricted commercial use. Several liquid metal extraction and partitioning systems have been investigated which give the required ruthenium-palladium-rhodium separation. For example, when molten magnesium containing 0.1 at. % each of palladium and ruthenium was equilibrated with molten uranium-5 wt % chromium eutectic at 900/sup 0/C, the ruthenium extracted into the uranium-chromium solution while the palladium remained in the magnesium. Separation factors of greater than 10/sup 6/ were obtained. 1 table.« less
  • One of the important steps in processing the exhaust from a fusion reactor is recovering tritium which is incorporated into molecules such as water and methane. One device which may prove to be very effective for this purpose is a palladium membrane reactor. This is a reactor which incorporates a Pd/Ag membrane in the reactor geometry. Reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking can be carried out over the reactor catalyst, and the product hydrogen can be simultaneously removed from the reacting mixture. Because product is removed, greater than usual conversions can be obtained. In additionmore » ultrapure hydrogen is produced, eliminating the need for an additional processing step. A palladium membrane reactor has been built and tested with three different catalysts. Initial results with a Ni-based catalyst show that it is very effective at promoting all three reactions listed above. Under the proper conditions, hydrogen recoveries approaching 100% have been observed. This study serves to experimentally validate the palladium membrane reactor as potentially important tool for fusion fuel processing.« less