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Title: Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation

Abstract

Warp is a multidimensional discrete-particle beam simulation program designed to be applicable where the beam space-charge is non-negligible or dominant. It is being developed in a collaboration among LLNL, LBNL and the University of Maryland. It was originally designed and optimized for heave ion fusion accelerator physics studies, but has received use in a broader range of applications, including for example laser wakefield accelerators, e-cloud studies in high enery accelerators, particle traps and other areas. At present it incorporates 3-D, axisymmetric (r,z) planar (x-z) and transverse slice (x,y) descriptions, with both electrostatic and electro-magnetic fields, and a beam envelope model. The code is guilt atop the Python interpreter language.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
LLNL
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1231583
Report Number(s):
WARP V.3; 002808MLTPL00
LLNL-CODE-560678
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Software
Software Revision:
00
Software Package Number:
002808
Software Package Contents:
Open Source Software package available from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at the following URL: http://warp.lbl.gov
Software CPU:
MLTPL
Open Source:
Yes
Source Code Available:
Yes
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

. Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation. Computer software. https://www.osti.gov//servlets/purl/1231583. Vers. 00. USDOE. 8 May. 2012. Web.
. (2012, May 8). Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation (Version 00) [Computer software]. https://www.osti.gov//servlets/purl/1231583.
. Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation. Computer software. Version 00. May 8, 2012. https://www.osti.gov//servlets/purl/1231583.
@misc{osti_1231583,
title = {Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation, Version 00},
author = {},
abstractNote = {Warp is a multidimensional discrete-particle beam simulation program designed to be applicable where the beam space-charge is non-negligible or dominant. It is being developed in a collaboration among LLNL, LBNL and the University of Maryland. It was originally designed and optimized for heave ion fusion accelerator physics studies, but has received use in a broader range of applications, including for example laser wakefield accelerators, e-cloud studies in high enery accelerators, particle traps and other areas. At present it incorporates 3-D, axisymmetric (r,z) planar (x-z) and transverse slice (x,y) descriptions, with both electrostatic and electro-magnetic fields, and a beam envelope model. The code is guilt atop the Python interpreter language.},
url = {https://www.osti.gov//servlets/purl/1231583},
doi = {},
year = {Tue May 08 00:00:00 EDT 2012},
month = {Tue May 08 00:00:00 EDT 2012},
note =
}

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  • Over the past years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel finite element (FE) particle-in-cell code Pic3P (Pic2P) for simulations of beam-cavity interactions dominated by space-charge effects. As opposed to standard space-charge dominated beam transport codes, which are based on the electrostatic approximation, Pic3P (Pic2P) includes space-charge, retardation and boundary effects as it self-consistently solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations using higher-order FE methods on conformal meshes. Use of efficient, large-scale parallel processing allows for the modeling of photoinjectors with unprecedented accuracy, aiding the design and operation of the next-generation of accelerator facilities. Applications to the Linacmore » Coherent Light Source (LCLS) RF gun are presented.« less
  • The current U.S. approach for a driver for inertial confinement fusion power production is a heavy-ion induction accelerator; high-current beams of heavy ions are focused onto the fusion target. The space-charge of the high-current beams affects the behavior more strongly than does the temperature (the beams are described as being ``space-charge dominated``) and the beams behave like non-neutral plasmas. The particle simulation code WARP has been developed and used to study the transport and acceleration of space-charge dominated ion beams in a wide range of applications, from basic beam physics studies, to ongoing experiments, to fusion driver concepts. WARP combinesmore » aspects of a particle simulation code and an accelerator code; it uses multi-dimensional, electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) techniques and has a rich mechanism for specifying the lattice of externally applied fields. There are both two- and three-dimensional versions, the former including axisymmetric (r-z) and transverse slice (x-y) models. WARP includes a number of novel techniques and capabilities that both enhance its performance and make it applicable to a wide range of problems. Some of these have been described elsewhere. Several recent developments will be discussed in this paper. A transverse slice model has been implemented with the novel capability of including bends, allowing more rapid simulation while retaining essential physics. An interface using Python as the interpreter layer instead of Basis has been developed. A parallel version of WARP has been developed using Python.« less
  • The development of a high current, heavy-ion beam for inertial confinement fusion requires a detailed understanding of the behavior of the beam, including effects of the large self-fields. This necessity makes particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation the appropriate tool, and for this reason, the three-dimensional PIC/accelerator code WARP3d is being developed. WARP3d has been used extensively to study the creation and propagation of ion beams both to support experiments and for the understanding of basic beam physics. An overview of the structure of the code is presented along with a discussion of features that make the code an effective tool in themore » understanding of space-charge dominated beam behavior. A number of applications where WARP3d has played an important role is discussed, emphasizing the need of three-dimensional, first principles simulations. Results and comparisons with experiment are presented.« less
  • Numerical simulations using the WARP particle-in-cell code are applied to study the evolution of the space-charge-dominated beam in the University of Maryland Electron Ring (1). The self-consistent simulations play a special role because the nonlinear nature of the dynamics makes accurate analytic predictions difficult. Simulations of a matched beam at the nominal design parameters show negligible degradation in beam quality after 10 turns. The role of lattice element nonlinearities on the beam evolution has been investigated. An rms mismatch is shown to lead to bounded oscillations and an acceptable level of emittance growth. A mismatch in the dispersion function, however,more » is shown to lead to a higher levels of emittance growth, and dispersion matching is currently under investigation. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}« less
  • Numerical simulations using the WARP particle-in-cell code are applied to study the evolution of the space-charge-dominated beam in the University of Maryland Electron Ring (1). The self-consistent simulations play a special role because the nonlinear nature of the dynamics makes accurate analytic predictions difficult. Simulations of a matched beam at the nominal design parameters show negligible degradation in beam quality after 10 turns. The role of lattice element nonlinearities on the beam evolution has been investigated. An rms mismatch is shown to lead to bounded oscillations and an acceptable level of emittance growth. A mismatch in the dispersion function, however,more » is shown to lead to a higher levels of emittance growth, and dispersion matching is currently under investigation.« less

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