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Title: Combinatorial Insights into Doping Control and Transport Properties of Zinc Tin Nitride

Abstract

ZnSnN 2 is an Earth-abundant semiconductor analogous to the III–nitrides with potential as a solar absorber due to its direct bandgap, steep absorption onset, and disorder-driven bandgap tunability. Despite these desirable properties, discrepancies in the fundamental bandgap and degenerate n-type carrier density have been prevalent issues in the limited amount of literature available on this material. We we use a combinatorial RF co-sputtering approach, we explored a growth-temperature-composition space for Zn 1+xSn 1-xN 2 over the ranges 35–340 °C and 0.30–0.75 Zn/(Zn + Sn). In this way, we identified an optimal set of deposition parameters for obtaining as-deposited films with wurtzite crystal structure and carrier density as low as 1.8 × 10 18 cm -3. Films grown at 230 °C with Zn/(Zn + Sn) = 0.60 were found to have the largest grain size overall (70 nm diameter on average) while also exhibiting low carrier density (3 × 10 18 cm -3) and high mobility (8.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1). Using this approach, we establish the direct bandgap of cation-disordered ZnSnN 2 at 1.0 eV. Moreover, we report tunable carrier density as a function of cation composition, in which lower carrier density is observed for higher Zn content.more » Consequently, this relationship manifests as a Burstein–Moss shift widening the apparent bandgap as cation composition moves away from Zn-rich. Collectively, these findings provide important insight into the fundamental properties of the Zn–Sn–N material system and highlight the potential to utilize ZnSnN 2 for photovoltaics.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1227680
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5J00-64356
Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7526
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. C
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 42; Related Information: Journal of Materials Chemistry C; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7526
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; direct bandgap; wurtzite crystal structure; carrier density; zinc tin nitride; Zn-Sn-N

Citation Formats

Fioretti, Angela N., Zakutayev, Andriy, Moutinho, Helio, Melamed, Celeste, Perkins, John D., Norman, Andrew G., Al-Jassim, Mowafak, Toberer, Eric S., and Tamboli, Adele C. Combinatorial Insights into Doping Control and Transport Properties of Zinc Tin Nitride. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1039/C5TC02663F.
Fioretti, Angela N., Zakutayev, Andriy, Moutinho, Helio, Melamed, Celeste, Perkins, John D., Norman, Andrew G., Al-Jassim, Mowafak, Toberer, Eric S., & Tamboli, Adele C. Combinatorial Insights into Doping Control and Transport Properties of Zinc Tin Nitride. United States. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5TC02663F
Fioretti, Angela N., Zakutayev, Andriy, Moutinho, Helio, Melamed, Celeste, Perkins, John D., Norman, Andrew G., Al-Jassim, Mowafak, Toberer, Eric S., and Tamboli, Adele C. Mon . "Combinatorial Insights into Doping Control and Transport Properties of Zinc Tin Nitride". United States. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5TC02663F.
@article{osti_1227680,
title = {Combinatorial Insights into Doping Control and Transport Properties of Zinc Tin Nitride},
author = {Fioretti, Angela N. and Zakutayev, Andriy and Moutinho, Helio and Melamed, Celeste and Perkins, John D. and Norman, Andrew G. and Al-Jassim, Mowafak and Toberer, Eric S. and Tamboli, Adele C.},
abstractNote = {ZnSnN2 is an Earth-abundant semiconductor analogous to the III–nitrides with potential as a solar absorber due to its direct bandgap, steep absorption onset, and disorder-driven bandgap tunability. Despite these desirable properties, discrepancies in the fundamental bandgap and degenerate n-type carrier density have been prevalent issues in the limited amount of literature available on this material. We we use a combinatorial RF co-sputtering approach, we explored a growth-temperature-composition space for Zn1+xSn1-xN2 over the ranges 35–340 °C and 0.30–0.75 Zn/(Zn + Sn). In this way, we identified an optimal set of deposition parameters for obtaining as-deposited films with wurtzite crystal structure and carrier density as low as 1.8 × 1018 cm-3. Films grown at 230 °C with Zn/(Zn + Sn) = 0.60 were found to have the largest grain size overall (70 nm diameter on average) while also exhibiting low carrier density (3 × 1018 cm-3) and high mobility (8.3 cm2 V-1 s-1). Using this approach, we establish the direct bandgap of cation-disordered ZnSnN2 at 1.0 eV. Moreover, we report tunable carrier density as a function of cation composition, in which lower carrier density is observed for higher Zn content. Consequently, this relationship manifests as a Burstein–Moss shift widening the apparent bandgap as cation composition moves away from Zn-rich. Collectively, these findings provide important insight into the fundamental properties of the Zn–Sn–N material system and highlight the potential to utilize ZnSnN2 for photovoltaics.},
doi = {10.1039/C5TC02663F},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1227680}, journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. C},
issn = {2050-7526},
number = 42,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {9}
}