skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques; Phase I Annual Technical Report, 1 July 1998 - 30 June 1999

Abstract

This report describes work performed by International Solar Electric Technology, Inc. (ISET) during phase I of the R&D partnership subcontract titled ''CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques.'' The objective of this program is to bring ISET's novel non-vacuum CIS technology closer to commercialization by concentrating on issues such as device-efficiency improvement, larger-bandgap absorber growth, and module fabrication. Advances made in CIS and related compound solar cell fabrication processes have clearly shown that these materials and device structures can yield power conversion efficiencies in the 15%-20% range. However, many of the laboratory results on CIS-type devices have been obtained using relatively high-cost vacuum-based deposition techniques. The present project was specifically geared toward developing a low-cost, non-vacuum ''particle deposition'' method for CIS-type absorber growth. There are four major processing steps in this technique: (i) preparation of a starting powder containing all or some of the chemical species constituting CIS, (ii) preparation of an ink using the starting powder, (iii) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a thin precursor layer, and (iv) conversion of the precursor layer into a fused photovoltaic absorber through annealing steps. During this Phase I program, ISET worked on tasks that were gearedmore » toward the following goals: (i) elimination of back-contact problems, (ii) growth of large-bandgap absorbers, and (iii) fabrication of mini-modules. As a result of the Phase I research, a Mo back-contact structure was developed that eliminated problems that resulted in poor mechanical integrity of the absorber layers. Sulfur inclusion into CIS films through high-temperature sulfurization in H{sub 2}S gas was also studied. It was determined that S diffusion was a strong function of the stoichiometry of the CIS layer. Sulfur was found to diffuse rapidly through the Cu-rich films, whereas the diffusion constant was at least three orders of magnitude smaller in Cu-poor layers. Additionally, S profiles in sulfurized CIS films were correlated with the distribution of the grain size through the film. Absorbers containing large concentrations of Ga near the Mo contact interface also had large S content in that same region due to the small grain size of the Ga-containing material. New work on monolithic integration procedures overcame the problem of low shunt resistance and yielded CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} (CISS) mini-modules of about 64-cm{sup 2} area with close to 7% efficiency.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
12226
Report Number(s):
NREL/SR-520-26930
ON: DE00012226; TRN: US200312%%136
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-99GO10337
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 9 Aug 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANNEALING; BYPASSES; COMMERCIALIZATION; DEPOSITION; DIFFUSION; EFFICIENCY; FABRICATION; GRAIN SIZE; PRECURSOR; PROCESSING; SOLAR CELLS; STOICHIOMETRY; SUBSTRATES; SULFUR; PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV); CIS; DEVICE FABRICATION; NON-VACUUM; ''PARTICLE DEPOSITION'' TECHNIQUE; SULFUR DIFFUSION; DEVICE MEASUREMENTS; MINI-MODULES; BACK-CONTACT; DEVICE EFFICIENCY

Citation Formats

Basol, B. M., Halani, A., Kapur, V. K., Leidholm, C. R., Norsworthy, G., and Roe, R. CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques; Phase I Annual Technical Report, 1 July 1998 - 30 June 1999. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.2172/12226.
Basol, B. M., Halani, A., Kapur, V. K., Leidholm, C. R., Norsworthy, G., & Roe, R. CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques; Phase I Annual Technical Report, 1 July 1998 - 30 June 1999. United States. doi:10.2172/12226.
Basol, B. M., Halani, A., Kapur, V. K., Leidholm, C. R., Norsworthy, G., and Roe, R. Mon . "CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques; Phase I Annual Technical Report, 1 July 1998 - 30 June 1999". United States. doi:10.2172/12226. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/12226.
@article{osti_12226,
title = {CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques; Phase I Annual Technical Report, 1 July 1998 - 30 June 1999},
author = {Basol, B. M. and Halani, A. and Kapur, V. K. and Leidholm, C. R. and Norsworthy, G. and Roe, R.},
abstractNote = {This report describes work performed by International Solar Electric Technology, Inc. (ISET) during phase I of the R&D partnership subcontract titled ''CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques.'' The objective of this program is to bring ISET's novel non-vacuum CIS technology closer to commercialization by concentrating on issues such as device-efficiency improvement, larger-bandgap absorber growth, and module fabrication. Advances made in CIS and related compound solar cell fabrication processes have clearly shown that these materials and device structures can yield power conversion efficiencies in the 15%-20% range. However, many of the laboratory results on CIS-type devices have been obtained using relatively high-cost vacuum-based deposition techniques. The present project was specifically geared toward developing a low-cost, non-vacuum ''particle deposition'' method for CIS-type absorber growth. There are four major processing steps in this technique: (i) preparation of a starting powder containing all or some of the chemical species constituting CIS, (ii) preparation of an ink using the starting powder, (iii) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a thin precursor layer, and (iv) conversion of the precursor layer into a fused photovoltaic absorber through annealing steps. During this Phase I program, ISET worked on tasks that were geared toward the following goals: (i) elimination of back-contact problems, (ii) growth of large-bandgap absorbers, and (iii) fabrication of mini-modules. As a result of the Phase I research, a Mo back-contact structure was developed that eliminated problems that resulted in poor mechanical integrity of the absorber layers. Sulfur inclusion into CIS films through high-temperature sulfurization in H{sub 2}S gas was also studied. It was determined that S diffusion was a strong function of the stoichiometry of the CIS layer. Sulfur was found to diffuse rapidly through the Cu-rich films, whereas the diffusion constant was at least three orders of magnitude smaller in Cu-poor layers. Additionally, S profiles in sulfurized CIS films were correlated with the distribution of the grain size through the film. Absorbers containing large concentrations of Ga near the Mo contact interface also had large S content in that same region due to the small grain size of the Ga-containing material. New work on monolithic integration procedures overcame the problem of low shunt resistance and yielded CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} (CISS) mini-modules of about 64-cm{sup 2} area with close to 7% efficiency.},
doi = {10.2172/12226},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1999},
month = {8}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share: