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Title: The iQID Camera: An Ionizing-Radiation Quantum Imaging Detector

Abstract

We have developed and tested a novel, ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector (iQID). This scintillation-based detector was originally developed as a high-resolution gamma-ray imager, called BazookaSPECT, for use in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Recently, we have investigated the detectors response and imaging potential with other forms of ionizing radiation including alpha, neutron, beta, and fission fragment particles. The detector’s response to a broad range of ionizing radiation has prompted its new title. The principle operation of the iQID camera involves coupling a scintillator to an image intensifier. The scintillation light generated particle interactions is optically amplified by the intensifier and then re-imaged onto a CCD/CMOS camera sensor. The intensifier provides sufficient optical gain that practically any CCD/CMOS camera can be used to image ionizing radiation. Individual particles are identified and their spatial position (to sub-pixel accuracy) and energy are estimated on an event-by-event basis in real time using image analysis algorithms on high-performance graphics processing hardware. Distinguishing features of the iQID camera include portability, large active areas, high sensitivity, and high spatial resolution (tens of microns). Although modest, iQID has energy resolution that is sufficient to discrimate between particles. Additionally, spatial features of individual events can be used for particlemore » discrimination. An important iQID imaging application that has recently been developed is single-particle, real-time digital autoradiography. In conclusion, we present the latest results and discuss potential applications.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). College of Optical Sciences
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging; Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). College of Optical Sciences
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1221503
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-100301
Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; P41EB002035
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 767; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Charged particle imaging detectors; Ionizing radiation; BazookaSPECT; Digital autoradiography

Citation Formats

Miller, Brian W., Gregory, Stephanie J., Fuller, Erin S., Barrett, Harrison H., Barber, Bradford H., and Furenlid, Lars R. The iQID Camera: An Ionizing-Radiation Quantum Imaging Detector. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2014.05.070.
Miller, Brian W., Gregory, Stephanie J., Fuller, Erin S., Barrett, Harrison H., Barber, Bradford H., & Furenlid, Lars R. The iQID Camera: An Ionizing-Radiation Quantum Imaging Detector. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2014.05.070.
Miller, Brian W., Gregory, Stephanie J., Fuller, Erin S., Barrett, Harrison H., Barber, Bradford H., and Furenlid, Lars R. 2014. "The iQID Camera: An Ionizing-Radiation Quantum Imaging Detector". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2014.05.070. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1221503.
@article{osti_1221503,
title = {The iQID Camera: An Ionizing-Radiation Quantum Imaging Detector},
author = {Miller, Brian W. and Gregory, Stephanie J. and Fuller, Erin S. and Barrett, Harrison H. and Barber, Bradford H. and Furenlid, Lars R.},
abstractNote = {We have developed and tested a novel, ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector (iQID). This scintillation-based detector was originally developed as a high-resolution gamma-ray imager, called BazookaSPECT, for use in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Recently, we have investigated the detectors response and imaging potential with other forms of ionizing radiation including alpha, neutron, beta, and fission fragment particles. The detector’s response to a broad range of ionizing radiation has prompted its new title. The principle operation of the iQID camera involves coupling a scintillator to an image intensifier. The scintillation light generated particle interactions is optically amplified by the intensifier and then re-imaged onto a CCD/CMOS camera sensor. The intensifier provides sufficient optical gain that practically any CCD/CMOS camera can be used to image ionizing radiation. Individual particles are identified and their spatial position (to sub-pixel accuracy) and energy are estimated on an event-by-event basis in real time using image analysis algorithms on high-performance graphics processing hardware. Distinguishing features of the iQID camera include portability, large active areas, high sensitivity, and high spatial resolution (tens of microns). Although modest, iQID has energy resolution that is sufficient to discrimate between particles. Additionally, spatial features of individual events can be used for particle discrimination. An important iQID imaging application that has recently been developed is single-particle, real-time digital autoradiography. In conclusion, we present the latest results and discuss potential applications.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2014.05.070},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
number = ,
volume = 767,
place = {United States},
year = 2014,
month = 6
}

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Cited by: 11works
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  • Abstract Alpha emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm) causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with alpha emitters may inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. For accurate dosimetry in alpha-RIT, tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed dose to targeted and non-targeted cells, especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterizemore » a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, iQID (ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector), for use in alpha-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection technology that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/X-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs recent advances in CCD/CMOS cameras and computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, we evaluated this system’s characteristics for alpha particle imaging including measurements of spatial resolution and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 (211At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ~20 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the alpha particle background was measured at a rate of (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10–4 cpm/cm2 (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was performed using a large-area iQID configuration (ø 11.5 cm). Estimation of the 211At activity distribution was demonstrated at mBq/μg levels. Conclusion: Single-particle digital autoradiography of alpha emitters has advantages over traditional autoradiographic techniques in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, and activity quantification capability. The system features and characterization results presented in this study show that iQID is a promising technology for microdosimetry, because it provides necessary information for interpreting alpha-RIT outcomes and for predicting the therapeutic efficacy of cell-targeted approaches using alpha emitters.« less
  • Purpose: Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclidemore » distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −4} cpm/cm{sup 2} (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was performed using a large-area iQID configuration (ø 11.5 cm). Estimation of the {sup 211}At activity distribution was demonstrated at mBq/μg-levels. Conclusions: Single-particle digital autoradiography of α emitters has advantages over traditional film-based autoradiographic techniques that use phosphor screens, in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, and activity quantification capability. The system features and characterization results presented in this study show that the iQID is a promising technology for microdosimetry, because it provides necessary information for interpreting alpha-RIT outcomes and for predicting the therapeutic efficacy of cell-targeted approaches using α emitters.« less
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  • In this paper, we present a workbench for the study of real-time quantum imaging by measuring the frame-by-frame quantum noise reduction of multi-spatial-mode twin beams generated by four wave mixing in Rb vapor. Exploiting the multiple spatial modes of this squeezed light source, we utilize spatial light modulators to selectively pass macropixels of quantum correlated modes from each of the twin beams to a high quantum efficiency balanced detector. Finally, in low-light-level imaging applications, the ability to measure the quantum correlations between individual spatial modes and macropixels of spatial modes with a single pixel camera will facilitate compressive quantum imagingmore » with sensitivity below the photon shot noise limit.« less
  • A deconvolution algorithm for the determination of the scatter contribution in positron emission tomography is described. The projected distributions of scattered radiation measured with a line source at different positions in water phantoms are described analytically. It is shown that an integral transformation of the observed projections with a slightly modified analytical function gives an adequate description of the scattered radiation. The scatter distribution from any composite object can thus be calculated and subsequently subtracted. The algorithm is tested on different objects. The result shows that the level of scattered radiation can be reduced from 25 to 1% of themore » total count rate in the center of the projection from a homogeneous phantom.« less