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Title: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

Abstract

The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. RePPAE
  3. Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States)
  4. GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind Program (EE-4W) (Wind Program Corporate)
OSTI Identifier:
1220243
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-5500-55588
6487
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
wind; WWSIS; western wind and solar; integration; grid; interconnection; phase 2; phase two; penetration

Citation Formats

Lew, Debra, Brinkman, Greg, Ibanez, E., Florita, A., Heaney, M., Hodge, B. -M., Hummon, M., Stark, G., King, J., Lefton, S. A., Kumar, N., Agan, D., Jordan, G., and Venkataraman, S. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.2172/1220243.
Lew, Debra, Brinkman, Greg, Ibanez, E., Florita, A., Heaney, M., Hodge, B. -M., Hummon, M., Stark, G., King, J., Lefton, S. A., Kumar, N., Agan, D., Jordan, G., & Venkataraman, S. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2. United States. doi:10.2172/1220243.
Lew, Debra, Brinkman, Greg, Ibanez, E., Florita, A., Heaney, M., Hodge, B. -M., Hummon, M., Stark, G., King, J., Lefton, S. A., Kumar, N., Agan, D., Jordan, G., and Venkataraman, S. 2013. "The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2". United States. doi:10.2172/1220243. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1220243.
@article{osti_1220243,
title = {The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2},
author = {Lew, Debra and Brinkman, Greg and Ibanez, E. and Florita, A. and Heaney, M. and Hodge, B. -M. and Hummon, M. and Stark, G. and King, J. and Lefton, S. A. and Kumar, N. and Agan, D. and Jordan, G. and Venkataraman, S.},
abstractNote = {The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).},
doi = {10.2172/1220243},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2013,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that inmore » all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.« less
  • This is one-page, two-sided fact sheet presents high-level summary results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.
  • The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integrationmore » studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.« less
  • Power system operators and utilities worldwide have concerns about the impact of high-penetration wind and solar generation on electric grid reliability (EirGrid 2011b, Hydro-Quebec 2006, ERCOT 2010). The stability of North American grids under these conditions is a particular concern and possible impediment to reaching future renewable energy goals. Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) considers a 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration level that results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system, including different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behaviormore » of wind and solar generation. WWSIS-3 evaluates two specific aspects of fundamental frequency system stability: frequency response and transient stability.« less