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Title: Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

Abstract

Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. This report details the results of these evaluations.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1218343
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
biomass, infrastructure, saab, fuel economy, emissions, ethanol-optimized, journal of engines, engine, E85, flexible fuel, FFV

Citation Formats

West, Brian H., Lopez, Alberto J., Theiss, Timothy J., Graves, Ronald L., Storey, John M., and Lewis, Samuel A.. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/1218343.
West, Brian H., Lopez, Alberto J., Theiss, Timothy J., Graves, Ronald L., Storey, John M., & Lewis, Samuel A.. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower. United States. doi:10.2172/1218343.
West, Brian H., Lopez, Alberto J., Theiss, Timothy J., Graves, Ronald L., Storey, John M., and Lewis, Samuel A.. Mon . "Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower". United States. doi:10.2172/1218343. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1218343.
@article{osti_1218343,
title = {Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower},
author = {West, Brian H. and Lopez, Alberto J. and Theiss, Timothy J. and Graves, Ronald L. and Storey, John M. and Lewis, Samuel A.},
abstractNote = {Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. This report details the results of these evaluations.},
doi = {10.2172/1218343},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopowermore » 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the BioPower vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles. Regulated and unregulated emissions measurements on the FTP and the US06 aggressive driving test (part of the supplemental FTP) show that despite the lack of any certification testing requirement in Europe on E85 or on the U.S. cycles, the BioPower is within Tier 2, Bin 5 emissions levels (note that full useful life emissions have not been measured) on the FTP, and also within the 4000 mile US06 emissions limits. Emissions of hydrocarbon-based hazardous air pollutants are higher on Federal Certification Gasoline while ethanol and aldehyde emissions are higher on ethanol fuel. The advertised power increase on E85 was confirmed through acceleration tests on the chassis dyno as well as on-road.« less
  • Tests were performed on a prototype Volkswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the Urban Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), Congested Urban Expressway (CUE), and New York City Cycle (NYCC). Steady state measurements were performed at three speeds. Particulate measurements were completed at all test conditions. Approximately 250 grams of particulate matter were collected over the HFET cycle for inclusion in the Environmental Protection Agency Diesel Health Effects Research Program. During the urban cycle the vehicle obtained 45.7 mpg, with emission ratesmore » of 0.14, 0.89 and 1.07 grams per mile of HC, CO, and NOx, respectively. The Rabbit obtained 56.5 mpg during the HFET cycle.« less
  • The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. Themore » reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.« less
  • An emissions and fuel economy study of 56 catalyst cars in consumer use and maintenance has been performed by repeated testing of the cars over a two and one-half year period. This report summarizes analyses of the data base, and includes results on idle CO levels, mass emissions of HC, CO, NOx, sulfate, SO/sub 2/ and total particulate; total particulate elemental analyses, catalyst activity, and fuel economy. Test cycles used were the 1975 FTP, one-hour 50 mph cruise, Congested Freeway Driving Schedule, Highway Fuel Economy Test, and idle, 30 and 50 mph cruise for catalyst activity tests. Fuel economy datamore » for over-the-road driving are also presented from on-board totalizing fuel and engine hour meters on each car. Idle CO indicative of maladjusted carburetors (greater than 1%) was found to correlate with FTP CO emissions, purge of stored sulfur in the form of SO/sub 2/ from catalysts, and decreases in catalyst activity at idle in comparison to 30(2) and 50 mph activity results. Particulate sulfur emissions accounted for only 3.7% of fuel sulfur for the 256 CFDS tests in the data base. Over-the-road fuel economy was most closely represented by the FTP (city) value.« less