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Title: FRICTION STIR LAP WELDING OF ALUMINUM - POLYMER USING SCRIBE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract

Friction Stir Scribe (FSS) technology is a relatively new variant of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) which enables lap joining of dissimilar material with very different melting points and different high temperature flow behaviors. The cutter scribe attached at the tip of FSW tool pin effectively cuts the high melting point material such that a mechanically interlocking feature is created between the dissimilar materials. The geometric shape of this interlocking feature determines the shear strength attained by the lap joint. This work presents first use of scribe technology in joining polymers to aluminum alloy. Details of the several runs of scribe welding performed in lap joining of ~3.175mm thick polymers including HDPE, filled and unfilled Nylon 66 to 2mm thick AA5182 are presented. The effect of scribe geometry and length on weld interlocking features is presented along with lap shear strength evaluations.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1214902
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-106300
VT0505000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Friction Stir Welding and Processing VIII, March 15-19, 2015, Orlando, Florida, 153-161
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Upadhyay, Piyush, Hovanski, Yuri, Fifield, Leonard S., and Simmons, Kevin L. FRICTION STIR LAP WELDING OF ALUMINUM - POLYMER USING SCRIBE TECHNOLOGY. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1002/9781119093343.ch17.
Upadhyay, Piyush, Hovanski, Yuri, Fifield, Leonard S., & Simmons, Kevin L. FRICTION STIR LAP WELDING OF ALUMINUM - POLYMER USING SCRIBE TECHNOLOGY. United States. doi:10.1002/9781119093343.ch17.
Upadhyay, Piyush, Hovanski, Yuri, Fifield, Leonard S., and Simmons, Kevin L. Mon . "FRICTION STIR LAP WELDING OF ALUMINUM - POLYMER USING SCRIBE TECHNOLOGY". United States. doi:10.1002/9781119093343.ch17.
@article{osti_1214902,
title = {FRICTION STIR LAP WELDING OF ALUMINUM - POLYMER USING SCRIBE TECHNOLOGY},
author = {Upadhyay, Piyush and Hovanski, Yuri and Fifield, Leonard S. and Simmons, Kevin L.},
abstractNote = {Friction Stir Scribe (FSS) technology is a relatively new variant of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) which enables lap joining of dissimilar material with very different melting points and different high temperature flow behaviors. The cutter scribe attached at the tip of FSW tool pin effectively cuts the high melting point material such that a mechanically interlocking feature is created between the dissimilar materials. The geometric shape of this interlocking feature determines the shear strength attained by the lap joint. This work presents first use of scribe technology in joining polymers to aluminum alloy. Details of the several runs of scribe welding performed in lap joining of ~3.175mm thick polymers including HDPE, filled and unfilled Nylon 66 to 2mm thick AA5182 are presented. The effect of scribe geometry and length on weld interlocking features is presented along with lap shear strength evaluations.},
doi = {10.1002/9781119093343.ch17},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 16 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Mon Feb 16 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}

Conference:
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  • Superplastically-formed structural panels are growing in their applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, and other industries. Generally, monolithic sheets are employed, limiting the size and complexity of the final part. However, more complex and larger final geometries are possible if individual sheet materials can be joined together through an appropriate joining technology, then SPF formed to final shape. The primary challenge in this type of SPF fabrication has been making a joint between the sheets that will survive the SPF forming event and display the correct amount of elongation in the joint relative to the base materials being formed. Friction Stirmore » Welding is an ideal joining technology for SPF applications because the forming response of the weld metal at SPF conditions is adjustable by selecting different weld process parameters during initial joining. This allows the SPF deformation in the weld metal to be “tuned” to the deformation of the parent sheet to prevent early failure from occurring in either the weld metal or the parent sheet due to mismatched SPF flow stresses. Industrial application of the concept of matching flow stresses is currently being pursued on a program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on room temperature formed friction stir welded tailor welded blanks for heavy truck applications. Flow stress matching and process parameter “tuning” is also important in the fabrication of SPF multisheet structural panels. These panels are fabricated by joining three sheets together with alternating welds top and bottom, so that each weld penetrates only two of the three sheets. This sheet pack is then sealed with a weld seam around the outside and hot gas is introduced between the sheets through a welded tube. Under SPF conditions the sheet pack inflates to produce an internally supported structure. In this paper we presents results on an investigation into using FSW and Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding to fabricated 5083 aluminum multisheet packs that can be SPF formed into 3-D structural or integrally stiffened panels. Several configurations of 3-sheet egg crate and truss structures were friction stir welded and hot gas SPF formed in a parallel-platen SPF press. Data on weld conditions for optimum SPF forming as well as pre- and post- forming microstructures will be presented. It is found that FSW process conditions are a key feature of a successful SPF forming operation and the nugget microstructures and other features of the weld zone can be optimized to produce a wide range of weld region elongations. Friction Stir Welding may prove to be the enabler that allows aluminum to be considered in multisheet and integrally stiffened SPF Aluminum structures.« less
  • Development of robust and cost effective method of joining dissimilar materials can provide a critical pathway to enable widespread use of multi-material design and components in mainstream industrial applications. The use of multi-material components such as Steel-Aluminum, Aluminum-Polymer allows design engineers to optimize material utilization based on service requirements and often lead weight and cost reductions. However producing an effective joint between materials with vastly different thermal, microstructural and deformation response is highly problematic using conventional joining and /or fastening methods. This is especially challenging in cost sensitive high volume markets that largely rely on low–cost joining solutions. Friction Stirmore » Scribe technology was developed to meet the demands of joining materials with drastically different properties and melting regimes. The process enables joining of light metals like Magnesium and Aluminum to high temperature materials like Steels and Titanium. Additionally viable joints between polymer composites and metal can also be made using this method. This paper will present state of the art, progress made and challenges associated with this innovative derivative of Friction Stir welding in reference to joining dissimilar metals and polymer/metal combinations.« less
  • One challenge in adapting welding processes to dissimilar material joining is the diversity of melting temperatures of the different materials. Although the use of mechanical fasteners and adhesives have mostly paved the way for near-term implementation of dissimilar material systems, these processes only accentuate the need for low-cost welding processes capable of joining dissimilar material components regardless of alloy, properties, or melting temperature. Friction stir scribe technology was developed to overcome the challenges of joining dissimilar material components where melting temperatures vary greatly, and properties and/or chemistry are not compatible with more traditional welding processes. Although the friction stir scribemore » process is capable of joining dissimilar metals and metal/polymer systems, a more detailed evaluation of several aluminum/steel joints is presented herein to demonstrate the ability to both chemically and mechanically join dissimilar materials.« less
  • One challenge in adapting welding processes to dissimilar material joining is the diversity of melting temperatures of the different materials. Although the use of mechanical fasteners and adhesives have mostly paved the way for near-term implementation of dissimilar material systems, these processes only accentuate the need for low-cost welding processes capable of impartially joining dissimilar material components regardless of alloy, properties, or melting temperature. Friction stir scribe technology was developed to overcome the challenges of joining dissimilar material components where melting temperatures vary greatly, and properties and/or chemistry are not compatible with more traditional welding processes. Finally, although the frictionmore » stir scribe process is capable of joining dissimilar metals and metal/polymer systems, a more detailed evaluation of several aluminum/steel joints is presented herein to demonstrate the ability to both chemically and mechanically join dissimilar materials.« less
  • Aluminum 1060 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V plates were lap joined by friction stir welding. A cutting pin of rotary burr made of tungsten carbide was employed. The microstructures of the joining interface were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Joint strength was evaluated by a tensile shear test. During the welding process, the surface layer of the titanium plate was cut off by the pin, and intensively mixed with aluminum situated on the titanium plate. The microstructures analysis showed that a visible swirl-like mixed region existed at the interface. In this region, the Al metal, Ti metal and the mixed layermore » of them were all presented. The ultimate tensile shear strength of joint reached 100% of 1060Al that underwent thermal cycle provided by the shoulder. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW with cutting pin was successfully employed to form Al/Ti lap joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swirl-like structures formed due to mechanical mixing were found at the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-strength joints fractured at Al suffered thermal cycle were produced.« less