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Title: 120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space

Abstract

Energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption and energy-related CO2 emissions. Floor space is a major driver of building energy demand. This paper develops a historical time series of total residential floor space for 1891-2010 and examines the role of socio-economic drivers GDP, population and household size on floor space. Using primarily data from the U.S. Census Bureau, we develop new construction and vintage-disaggregated housing stock for three building types, and address various data inconsistency issues. An examination of the long-term relationship of GDP and total residential floor space shows a remarkably constant trend over the period. While population increases five times over the period, a 50% decrease in household size contributes towards a tenfold increase in the number of housing units and floor space, while average floor space per unit remains surprisingly constant, as a result of housing retirement dynamics. In the last 30 years, however, these trends appear to be changing, as household size shows signs of leveling off, or even increasing again, while average floor space per unit has been increasing. Total residential sector primary energy consumption and floor space show a similar growth trend over the last 60 years.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1214893
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-104984
KP1703030
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
PLoS One, 10(8):Article No. e0134135
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: PLoS One, 10(8):Article No. e0134135
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Pinto de Moura, Maria C., Smith, Steven J., and Belzer, David B. 120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134135.
Pinto de Moura, Maria C., Smith, Steven J., & Belzer, David B. 120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space. United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134135.
Pinto de Moura, Maria C., Smith, Steven J., and Belzer, David B. Tue . "120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space". United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134135.
@article{osti_1214893,
title = {120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space},
author = {Pinto de Moura, Maria C. and Smith, Steven J. and Belzer, David B.},
abstractNote = {Energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption and energy-related CO2 emissions. Floor space is a major driver of building energy demand. This paper develops a historical time series of total residential floor space for 1891-2010 and examines the role of socio-economic drivers GDP, population and household size on floor space. Using primarily data from the U.S. Census Bureau, we develop new construction and vintage-disaggregated housing stock for three building types, and address various data inconsistency issues. An examination of the long-term relationship of GDP and total residential floor space shows a remarkably constant trend over the period. While population increases five times over the period, a 50% decrease in household size contributes towards a tenfold increase in the number of housing units and floor space, while average floor space per unit remains surprisingly constant, as a result of housing retirement dynamics. In the last 30 years, however, these trends appear to be changing, as household size shows signs of leveling off, or even increasing again, while average floor space per unit has been increasing. Total residential sector primary energy consumption and floor space show a similar growth trend over the last 60 years.},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0134135},
journal = {PLoS One, 10(8):Article No. e0134135},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {8}
}

Works referenced in this record:

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The Prevalence of Prosperous Shrinking Cities
    journal, May 2019