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Title: Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling

Abstract

Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of $100 to 150 per kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of chargemore » (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1211075
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AR0000150
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources; Journal Volume: 276
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Ingale, ND, Gallaway, JW, Nyce, M, Couzis, A, and Banerjee, S. Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.11.010.
Ingale, ND, Gallaway, JW, Nyce, M, Couzis, A, & Banerjee, S. Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.11.010.
Ingale, ND, Gallaway, JW, Nyce, M, Couzis, A, and Banerjee, S. Sun . "Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.11.010.
@article{osti_1211075,
title = {Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling},
author = {Ingale, ND and Gallaway, JW and Nyce, M and Couzis, A and Banerjee, S},
abstractNote = {Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of $100 to 150 per kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.11.010},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = ,
volume = 276,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Sun Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}