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Title: Effect of Oxidation of Carbon Material on Suspension Electrodes for Flow Electrode Capacitive Deionization

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC); Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1210369
DOE Contract Number:
ERKCC61
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Science & Technology; Journal Volume: 49; Related Information: FIRST partners with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (lead); Argonne National Laboratory; Drexel University; Georgia State University; Northwestern University; Pennsylvania State University; Suffolk University; Vanderbilt University; University of Virginia
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
catalysis (heterogeneous), solar (fuels), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel cells, electrodes - solar, mechanical behavior, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, synthesis (novel materials)

Citation Formats

Hatzell, K. B., Hatzell, M., Cook, K.M., Boota, M., Housel, G.M., McBride, A., Kumbur, E. C., and Gogotsi, Y. Effect of Oxidation of Carbon Material on Suspension Electrodes for Flow Electrode Capacitive Deionization. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1021/es5055989.
Hatzell, K. B., Hatzell, M., Cook, K.M., Boota, M., Housel, G.M., McBride, A., Kumbur, E. C., & Gogotsi, Y. Effect of Oxidation of Carbon Material on Suspension Electrodes for Flow Electrode Capacitive Deionization. United States. doi:10.1021/es5055989.
Hatzell, K. B., Hatzell, M., Cook, K.M., Boota, M., Housel, G.M., McBride, A., Kumbur, E. C., and Gogotsi, Y. Tue . "Effect of Oxidation of Carbon Material on Suspension Electrodes for Flow Electrode Capacitive Deionization". United States. doi:10.1021/es5055989.
@article{osti_1210369,
title = {Effect of Oxidation of Carbon Material on Suspension Electrodes for Flow Electrode Capacitive Deionization},
author = {Hatzell, K. B. and Hatzell, M. and Cook, K.M. and Boota, M. and Housel, G.M. and McBride, A. and Kumbur, E. C. and Gogotsi, Y.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1021/es5055989},
journal = {Environmental Science & Technology},
number = ,
volume = 49,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Tue Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}
  • Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. We examine chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (~21 Pa s)more » to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g –1) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ~18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (~60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. Finally, it is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.« less
  • A process for the capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogelelectrodes has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemical are required for regeneration of the system. Electricity is used instead. Water with various anions and cations is pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions are electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at the surfaces of electrodes. The water leaving the cell is purified, as desired. The effects of cell voltage and cycling on the electrosorption capacities formore » NaCl and NaNO{sub 3} have been investigated and are reported here.« less
  • The combined effect of resorcinol/catalyst (100≤R/C≤800) and resorcinol/water (0.04≤R/W≤0.13) molar ratio on the textural and capacitive properties of carbon aerogels with potential application for capacitive deionization has been evaluated. Activated and pyrolyzed aerogels were synthesized by the sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde mixtures and dried in supercritical conditions. Data show that high R/C and R/W molar ratios lead to materials with large pores in the mesopore range, whereas the surface area and micropore volumes remain somewhat the same. The activation of the aerogels increased the differences in the specific surface and micropore volumes due to the development of microporosity. This effectmore » was more remarkable for the samples with low R/C whatever the R/W ratio, indicating that the carbon aerogel obtained using high amounts of catalyst are more prone to be activated. Regarding the electrochemical features of the aerogels, low capacitance values were measured in aerogels combining low R/W and high R/C and reciprocally low R/C and high R/W molar ratios, due to their higher resistance. Polarization resistances were found to be slightly higher for the pyrolyzed than for activated aerogels, and followed a decreasing trend with the mesoporosity, indicating the outstanding contribution of the mesoporous network to provide a good kinetic response. The desalting capacity of monolithic aerogels showed a simultaneous dependence with the surface area and the resistivity of the electrodes, pointing out the importance of performing electrochemical measurements in adequate cell configurations (i.e., desalting units) upon the intended application. - Graphical abstract: The textural properties of carbon aerogels are strongly influenced by the synthesis parameters precursor to catalyst (R/C) and water (R/C) ratios. The volumetric capacitance measured in a symmetric cell with monolithic electrodes of carbon aerogel strongly correlates with both surface area and electrical resistivity. - Highlights: • Influence of the synthesis conditions on the properties of carbon aerogels is reported. • Specific surface decreases in the activated samples when either R/C or R/W increase. • An enhanced decrease of the capacitance was observed when R/C and R/W increase. • Ohmic resistance of the electrodes that strongly depends on the R/W and R/C. • Electrosorption capacity is successfully correlated to surface area and resistivity.« less
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