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Title: Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas

Abstract

High mortality of hatchery-reared juvenile fall Chinook salmon emigrating from the Clearwater River was previously measured at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers; however, the causative mechanism of mortality is unknown. To elucidate potential mechanisms, the predation susceptibility of juvenile fall Chinook salmon was assessed during simulated passage from the Clearwater River and through the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, with and without cool water flow augmentation. Emigrant-sized juvenile salmon were acclimated to temperatures typical of the Clearwater River when cool water augmentation is discharged from Dworshak Dam (10°C to 17°C) and during temperatures that would be present without augmentation (17°C to 24°C), and were then exposed to smallmouth bass within temperatures typical of the Snake River in summer (17°C to 24°C). Slightly supersaturated total dissolved gas concentrations of 105% were also simulated to more closely approximate gas conditions of both rivers in summer. Predation susceptibility of juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C or 17°C and exposed to predators at 17°C did not differ. However, for salmon exposed to predators at 24°C, predation susceptibility was arguably higher for juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C (a 14°C increase) than for salmon acclimated at 17°C or 24°C (7°C and 0°Cmore » increases, respectively). These results indicate that predation susceptibility may be higher when a relatively large temperature difference exists between the Clearwater and Snake rivers; that is, when cool water flow augmentation is occurs in summer. However, further research is needed to determine if high confluence mortality measured in previous studies is related to cool water augmentation and, ultimately, whether or not this mortality has a population-level effect on the dynamics of wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1203915
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-96230
400480000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Book
Resource Relation:
Related Information: Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, 1/1/2012 - 12/31/2012 Annual Report, 2002-032-00:61-90
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; fall Chinook salmon; temperature change; flow augmentation; predation susceptibility

Citation Formats

Bellgraph, Brian J., Carter, Kathleen M., Chamness, Michele A., Abel, Tylor K., Linley, Timothy J., and Cullinan, Valerie I.. Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas. United States: N. p., 2014. Web.
Bellgraph, Brian J., Carter, Kathleen M., Chamness, Michele A., Abel, Tylor K., Linley, Timothy J., & Cullinan, Valerie I.. Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas. United States.
Bellgraph, Brian J., Carter, Kathleen M., Chamness, Michele A., Abel, Tylor K., Linley, Timothy J., and Cullinan, Valerie I.. Fri . "Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1203915,
title = {Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas},
author = {Bellgraph, Brian J. and Carter, Kathleen M. and Chamness, Michele A. and Abel, Tylor K. and Linley, Timothy J. and Cullinan, Valerie I.},
abstractNote = {High mortality of hatchery-reared juvenile fall Chinook salmon emigrating from the Clearwater River was previously measured at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers; however, the causative mechanism of mortality is unknown. To elucidate potential mechanisms, the predation susceptibility of juvenile fall Chinook salmon was assessed during simulated passage from the Clearwater River and through the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, with and without cool water flow augmentation. Emigrant-sized juvenile salmon were acclimated to temperatures typical of the Clearwater River when cool water augmentation is discharged from Dworshak Dam (10°C to 17°C) and during temperatures that would be present without augmentation (17°C to 24°C), and were then exposed to smallmouth bass within temperatures typical of the Snake River in summer (17°C to 24°C). Slightly supersaturated total dissolved gas concentrations of 105% were also simulated to more closely approximate gas conditions of both rivers in summer. Predation susceptibility of juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C or 17°C and exposed to predators at 17°C did not differ. However, for salmon exposed to predators at 24°C, predation susceptibility was arguably higher for juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C (a 14°C increase) than for salmon acclimated at 17°C or 24°C (7°C and 0°C increases, respectively). These results indicate that predation susceptibility may be higher when a relatively large temperature difference exists between the Clearwater and Snake rivers; that is, when cool water flow augmentation is occurs in summer. However, further research is needed to determine if high confluence mortality measured in previous studies is related to cool water augmentation and, ultimately, whether or not this mortality has a population-level effect on the dynamics of wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}

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  • Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) initiate spawning in the Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River, Idaho (rkm 240-397), at water temperatures above 16 C. This temperature exceeds the states of Idaho and Oregon water quality standards for salmonid spawning. These standards are consistent with results from studies of embryos exposed to a constant thermal regime, while salmon eggs in the natural environment are rarely exposed to a constant temperature regime. The objective of this study was to assess whether variable temperatures (i.e., declining after spawning) affected embryo survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon alevins andmore » fry. In 2003, fall Chinook salmon eggs were exposed to initial incubation temperatures ranging from 11-19 C in 2 C increments, and in 2004 eggs were exposed to initial temperatures of 13 C, 15 C, 16 C, 16.5 C, and 17 C. In both years, temperatures were adjusted downward approximately 0.2 C/day to mimic the thermal regime of the Snake River where these fish spawn. At 37-40 days post-fertilization, embryos were moved to a common exposure regime that followed the thermal profile of the Snake River through emergence. Mortality of fall Chinook salmon embryos increased markedly at initial incubation temperatures >17 C in both years. A logistic regression model estimated that a 50% reduction in survival from fertilization to emergence would occur at an initial incubation temperature of {approx}16 C. The laboratory results clearly showed a significant reduction in survival between 15 C and 17 C, which supported the model estimate. Results from 2004 showed a rapid decline in survival occurred between 16.5 C and 17 C, with no significant differences in survival at initial incubation temperatures <16.5 C. There were no significant differences across the range of initial temperature exposures for alevin and fry size at hatch and emergence. Differences in egg mass among females (notably 2003) most likely masked any size differences. Egg mass explained 86-98% of the variation of the size of alevins and fry at hatch and emergence. In 2003, maximum alevin wet weight increased as the initial temperatures increased, whereas the number of days it took to reach maximum wet weight decreased with increasing temperature. The number of days from fertilization to eyed egg, hatch, and emergence was highly related to temperature. Eggs exposed to initial temperatures of 13 C took 30-45 days longer to reach emergence than eggs initially exposed to 16.5 C. Overall, this study indicates that exposure to water temperatures up to 16.5 C will not have deleterious impacts on survival or growth from egg to emergence if temperatures decline at a rate of >0.2 C/day following spawning.« less
  • Some fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) initiate spawning in the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam at temperatures that exceed 13?C and at intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations that are less than 8 mg O2/L. Although water temperature declines and dissolved oxygen increases soon after spawning, these temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet the water quality standards established by the states of Oregon and Idaho for salmonid spawning. Our objective was to determine if temperatures from 13 to 17 C and dissolved oxygen levels from 4 to greater than 8 mg O2/L during the first 40 days ofmore » incubation followed by declining temperature and rising dissolved oxygen affected survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon embryos, alevins, and fry. During the first 40 days of incubation, temperatures were adjusted downward approximately 0.2 C/day and oxygen was increased in increments of 2 mg O2/L to mimic the thermal and oxygen regime of the Snake River where these fish spawn. At 40 days post-fertilization, embryos were moved to a common exposure regime that followed the thermal and dissolved oxygen profile of the Snake River through emergence. Mortality of fall Chinook salmon embryos increased markedly at initial incubation temperatures equal to or greater than 17?C, and a rapid decline in survival occurred between 16.5 C and 17 C, with no significant difference in survival at temperatures less than or equal to 16.5 C. Initial dissolved oxygen levels as low as 4 mg O2/L over a range of initial temperatures from 15 to 16.5 C did not affect embryo survival to emergence. There were no significant differences across the range of initial temperature exposures for alevin and fry size at hatch and emergence. The number of days from fertilization to eyed egg, hatch, and emergence was highly related to temperature and dissolved oxygen; it took from 6 to 10 days longer to reach hatch at 4 mg O2/L than at saturation and up to 24 days longer to reach emergence. In contrast, within each dissolved oxygen treatment, it took about 20 days longer to reach hatch at 13 C than at 16.5 C (no data for 17 C) and up to 41 days longer to reach emergence. Overall, this study indicates that exposure to water temperatures up to 16.5 C will not have deleterious impacts on survival or growth from egg to emergence if temperatures decline at a rate of greater than or equal to 0.2 C/day following spawning. Although fall Chinook salmon survived low initial dissolved oxygen levels, the delay in emergence could have significant long-term effects on their survival. Thus, an exemption to the state water quality standards for temperature but not oxygen may be warranted in the Snake River where fall Chinook salmon spawn.« less
  • The behaviours of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were evaluated during a temperature increase from 8.8 to 23.2°C, which was designed to simulate unique thermal conditions present in a hydroelectric reservoir. The percent of fish with an active swimming behaviour increased from 26 to 93 % and mean opercular beat rates increased from 76 to 159 beats per minute between basal and maximum temperatures. Fish equilibrium did not change significantly throughout the experiment and relatively little mortality (12 %) occurred. Thermal stress is likely incurred by juvenile salmon experiencing a temperature change of this magnitude; however, stress induced in thismore » study was primarily sublethal. Behavioural changes accompanying thermal stress (e.g., erratic swimming) may increase predation potential in the wild despite being sublethal during laboratory experiments.« less
  • Research conducted in 1996 to evaluate (1) changes in GBD signs in juvenile salmonids resulting from passage through turbine intakes and bypass systems, and (2) relative survival during migration through the lower Snake River for juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturation of dissolved gas.
  • This study was designed to answer the question of whether gas bubble disease (GBD) signs change as a result of the hydrostatic conditions juvenile salmonids encounter when they enter the turbine intake of hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration.