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Title: In situ visualization of metallurgical reactions in nanoscale Cu/Sn diffusion couples

Abstract

The Cu–Sn metallurgical soldering reaction in two-segmented Cu–Sn nanowires is visualized by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. By varying the relative lengths of Cu and Sn segments, we show that the metallurgical reaction starts at ~ 200 ° with the formation of a Cu–Sn solid solution for the Sn/Cu length ratio smaller than 1:5 while the formation of Cu–Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) for larger Sn/Cu length ratios. Upon heating the nanowires up to ~ 500 °C, two phase transformation pathways occur, η-Cu₆Sn₅ → ε-Cu₃Sn → δ-Cu₄₁Sn₁₁ for nanowires with a long Cu segment and η-Cu₆Sn₅ → ε-Cu₃Sn → γ-Cu₃Sn with a short Cu segment. The dynamic in situ TEM visualization of the evolution of Kirkendall voids demonstrates that Cu diffuses faster both in Sn and IMCs than that of Sn in Cu₃ and IMCs, which is the underlying cause of the dependence of the IMC formation and associated phase evolution on the relative lengths of the Cu and Sn segments.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [3]
  1. State Univ. of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1193240
Report Number(s):
BNL-108171-2015-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2040-3364; NANOHL; KC040302
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nanoscale
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2040-3364
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Yin, Qiyue, Stach, Eric A., Gao, Fan, Zhou, Guangwen, and Gu, Zhiyong. In situ visualization of metallurgical reactions in nanoscale Cu/Sn diffusion couples. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1039/c4nr06757f.
Yin, Qiyue, Stach, Eric A., Gao, Fan, Zhou, Guangwen, & Gu, Zhiyong. In situ visualization of metallurgical reactions in nanoscale Cu/Sn diffusion couples. United States. doi:10.1039/c4nr06757f.
Yin, Qiyue, Stach, Eric A., Gao, Fan, Zhou, Guangwen, and Gu, Zhiyong. Tue . "In situ visualization of metallurgical reactions in nanoscale Cu/Sn diffusion couples". United States. doi:10.1039/c4nr06757f. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1193240.
@article{osti_1193240,
title = {In situ visualization of metallurgical reactions in nanoscale Cu/Sn diffusion couples},
author = {Yin, Qiyue and Stach, Eric A. and Gao, Fan and Zhou, Guangwen and Gu, Zhiyong},
abstractNote = {The Cu–Sn metallurgical soldering reaction in two-segmented Cu–Sn nanowires is visualized by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. By varying the relative lengths of Cu and Sn segments, we show that the metallurgical reaction starts at ~ 200 ° with the formation of a Cu–Sn solid solution for the Sn/Cu length ratio smaller than 1:5 while the formation of Cu–Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) for larger Sn/Cu length ratios. Upon heating the nanowires up to ~ 500 °C, two phase transformation pathways occur, η-Cu₆Sn₅ → ε-Cu₃Sn → δ-Cu₄₁Sn₁₁ for nanowires with a long Cu segment and η-Cu₆Sn₅ → ε-Cu₃Sn → γ-Cu₃Sn with a short Cu segment. The dynamic in situ TEM visualization of the evolution of Kirkendall voids demonstrates that Cu diffuses faster both in Sn and IMCs than that of Sn in Cu₃ and IMCs, which is the underlying cause of the dependence of the IMC formation and associated phase evolution on the relative lengths of the Cu and Sn segments.},
doi = {10.1039/c4nr06757f},
journal = {Nanoscale},
number = 11,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Tue Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 13 works
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