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Title: Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

Abstract

Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for allmore » feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [5]
  1. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
  2. Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
  3. Yangpu District Central Hospital, Shanghai (China)
  4. Delta Research Corporation, BC (Canada)
  5. Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1191993
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1328298
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energies (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Energies (Basel); Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1073
Publisher:
MDPI AG
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; STORAGE OFF-GAS; WOOD CHIPS; TORREFIED WOOD CHIPS; WOOD PELLETS; SWITCHGRASS; EMISSION FACTOR; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; storage off-gas; wood chips; torrefied wood chips; wood pellets; switchgrass; emission factor

Citation Formats

Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar, Lim, C. Jim, Bi, Xiaotao T., Kuang, Xingya, Melin, Staffan, Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh, and Sokhansanj, Shahab. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.3390/en8031745.
Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar, Lim, C. Jim, Bi, Xiaotao T., Kuang, Xingya, Melin, Staffan, Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh, & Sokhansanj, Shahab. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass. United States. doi:10.3390/en8031745.
Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar, Lim, C. Jim, Bi, Xiaotao T., Kuang, Xingya, Melin, Staffan, Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh, and Sokhansanj, Shahab. Mon . "Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass". United States. doi:10.3390/en8031745. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1191993.
@article{osti_1191993,
title = {Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass},
author = {Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar and Lim, C. Jim and Bi, Xiaotao T. and Kuang, Xingya and Melin, Staffan and Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh and Sokhansanj, Shahab},
abstractNote = {Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.},
doi = {10.3390/en8031745},
journal = {Energies (Basel)},
number = 3,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 02 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Mon Mar 02 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}

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  • Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40°C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, atmore » 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO 2, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. Finally, this study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO 2 is highest for switchgrass and CH 4 is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.« less
  • Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO2, CO, and CH4 from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effectmore » of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO2 and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH4 emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.« less
  • The existing literature pertaining to the relative susceptibility of herbaceous and woody vegetation to photochemical oxidant, reveals that herbaceous plants are more susceptible to oxidant damage than woody plants. Hybrid poplar (clone number388) has been reported to be very susceptible to ozone, yet in a three year study in New Jersey, using open-top chambers, ambient oxidant had little effect on the growth of these trees. This information has forced us to explore the possible mechanisms that would lead to the greater susceptibility of herbaceous vegetation. Our analysis has led us to conclude that differential growth rates, growth strategies, successional standingmore » and the ability to react to fluctuating environmental factors may be important in determining the relative susceptibility of various plant species. Slower growing vegetation, which often typifies late successional communities, are less susceptible to oxidant damage than fast growing species, which are often early successional species.« less
  • A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) casemore » based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.« less