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Title: Bench-scale electrokinetic remediation for cesium-contaminated sediment at the Hanford Site, USA

Abstract

Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has been applied to extract various contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic compounds from contaminated sediment and soil using electric currents. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the efficiency of EK remediation method for Hanford sediment (76% sand and 24% silt-clay) after artificial contamination with nonradioactive 133Cs (0.01 M CsNO3) as a surrogate for radioactive 137Cs. The initial 133Cs concentration in the bulk sediment was 668 mg kg-1, with a higher 133Cs concentration for the silt-clay fraction (867 mg kg-1) than for the sand fraction (83 mg kg-1). A significant removal of cationic 133Cs from the sediment occurred from the cathode side (-), whereas the removal was negligible from the anode side (+) during the EK remediation process for 68 days. Based on microwave-assisted total digestion, 312 mg kg-1 of 133Cs was removed from the bulk sediment, which corresponds to the removal efficiency of 47%. The EK method was significantly more efficient for the silt-clay fraction than for the sand fraction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses indicate that change in major crystalline mineral phases was insignificant during the EK remediation and the removal of 133Cs from the Hanfordmore » sediment by the EK method is attributed mainly to cation exchange with K in clay minerals. The experimental results suggest that the EK method can effectively remove radioactive Cs from the surface or subsurface sediment contaminated by radioactive materials in the Hanford Site, Washington, USA.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1188880
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-106438
600301020
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 304(2):615-625
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 304(2):615-625
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Cesium; Electrokinetic remediation; Hanford Site; Cation exchange

Citation Formats

Jung, Hun Bok, Yang, Jungseok, and Um, Wooyong. Bench-scale electrokinetic remediation for cesium-contaminated sediment at the Hanford Site, USA. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1007/s10967-014-3852-0.
Jung, Hun Bok, Yang, Jungseok, & Um, Wooyong. Bench-scale electrokinetic remediation for cesium-contaminated sediment at the Hanford Site, USA. United States. doi:10.1007/s10967-014-3852-0.
Jung, Hun Bok, Yang, Jungseok, and Um, Wooyong. Fri . "Bench-scale electrokinetic remediation for cesium-contaminated sediment at the Hanford Site, USA". United States. doi:10.1007/s10967-014-3852-0.
@article{osti_1188880,
title = {Bench-scale electrokinetic remediation for cesium-contaminated sediment at the Hanford Site, USA},
author = {Jung, Hun Bok and Yang, Jungseok and Um, Wooyong},
abstractNote = {Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has been applied to extract various contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic compounds from contaminated sediment and soil using electric currents. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the efficiency of EK remediation method for Hanford sediment (76% sand and 24% silt-clay) after artificial contamination with nonradioactive 133Cs (0.01 M CsNO3) as a surrogate for radioactive 137Cs. The initial 133Cs concentration in the bulk sediment was 668 mg kg-1, with a higher 133Cs concentration for the silt-clay fraction (867 mg kg-1) than for the sand fraction (83 mg kg-1). A significant removal of cationic 133Cs from the sediment occurred from the cathode side (-), whereas the removal was negligible from the anode side (+) during the EK remediation process for 68 days. Based on microwave-assisted total digestion, 312 mg kg-1 of 133Cs was removed from the bulk sediment, which corresponds to the removal efficiency of 47%. The EK method was significantly more efficient for the silt-clay fraction than for the sand fraction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses indicate that change in major crystalline mineral phases was insignificant during the EK remediation and the removal of 133Cs from the Hanford sediment by the EK method is attributed mainly to cation exchange with K in clay minerals. The experimental results suggest that the EK method can effectively remove radioactive Cs from the surface or subsurface sediment contaminated by radioactive materials in the Hanford Site, Washington, USA.},
doi = {10.1007/s10967-014-3852-0},
journal = {Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 304(2):615-625},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}