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Title: The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

Abstract

Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NO X and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI were investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5more » % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  3. Wisconsin Engine Research Consultants, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center (FEERC)
Sponsoring Org.:
Work for Others (WFO); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1185674
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Emission Control Science & Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2199-3629
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; reactivity controlled compression ignition; particulate matter; low temperature combustion

Citation Formats

Storey, John Morse, Curran, Scott, Dempsey, Adam B., Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur, Reitz, Rolf, Walker, N. Ryan, and Wright, Chris. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1007/s40825-014-0007-2.
Storey, John Morse, Curran, Scott, Dempsey, Adam B., Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur, Reitz, Rolf, Walker, N. Ryan, & Wright, Chris. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines. United States. doi:10.1007/s40825-014-0007-2.
Storey, John Morse, Curran, Scott, Dempsey, Adam B., Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur, Reitz, Rolf, Walker, N. Ryan, and Wright, Chris. Thu . "The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines". United States. doi:10.1007/s40825-014-0007-2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1185674.
@article{osti_1185674,
title = {The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines},
author = {Storey, John Morse and Curran, Scott and Dempsey, Adam B. and Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur and Reitz, Rolf and Walker, N. Ryan and Wright, Chris},
abstractNote = {Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI were investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.},
doi = {10.1007/s40825-014-0007-2},
journal = {Emission Control Science & Technology},
issn = {2199-3629},
number = 1,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {12}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Experiments and Modeling of Dual-Fuel HCCI and PCCI Combustion Using In-Cylinder Fuel Blending
journal, October 2009

  • Kokjohn, Sage L.; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.
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Dual-Fuel PCI Combustion Controlled by In-Cylinder Stratification of Ignitability
conference, April 2006