skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching

Abstract

The development of nonvolatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching, and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field effect carrier density modulation in an underlying Ge(001) substrate by switching of the ferroelectric polarization in the epitaxial c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 (BTO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Ge. Using density functional theory, we demonstrate that switching of BTO polarization results in a large electric potential change in Ge. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirms the interface sharpness, and BTO tetragonality. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) indicates the absence of any low permittivity interlayer at the interface with Ge. Using piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM), we confirm the presence of fully switchable, stable ferroelectric polarization in BTO that appears to be single domain. Using microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), we clearly demonstrate a ferroelectric field effect.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1185502
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Ferroelectric; PFM; Barium Titanate; Field-Effect

Citation Formats

Ponath, Patrick, Fredrickson, Kurt, Posadas, Agham B., Ren, Yuan, Vasudevan, Rama K., Okatan, Mahmut Baris, Jesse, Stephen, Aoki, Toshihiro, McCartney, Martha, Smith, David J., Kalinin, Sergei V., Lai, Keji, and Demkov, Alexander A. Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms7067.
Ponath, Patrick, Fredrickson, Kurt, Posadas, Agham B., Ren, Yuan, Vasudevan, Rama K., Okatan, Mahmut Baris, Jesse, Stephen, Aoki, Toshihiro, McCartney, Martha, Smith, David J., Kalinin, Sergei V., Lai, Keji, & Demkov, Alexander A. Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms7067.
Ponath, Patrick, Fredrickson, Kurt, Posadas, Agham B., Ren, Yuan, Vasudevan, Rama K., Okatan, Mahmut Baris, Jesse, Stephen, Aoki, Toshihiro, McCartney, Martha, Smith, David J., Kalinin, Sergei V., Lai, Keji, and Demkov, Alexander A. Wed . "Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms7067. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1185502.
@article{osti_1185502,
title = {Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching},
author = {Ponath, Patrick and Fredrickson, Kurt and Posadas, Agham B. and Ren, Yuan and Vasudevan, Rama K. and Okatan, Mahmut Baris and Jesse, Stephen and Aoki, Toshihiro and McCartney, Martha and Smith, David J. and Kalinin, Sergei V. and Lai, Keji and Demkov, Alexander A.},
abstractNote = {The development of nonvolatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching, and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field effect carrier density modulation in an underlying Ge(001) substrate by switching of the ferroelectric polarization in the epitaxial c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 (BTO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Ge. Using density functional theory, we demonstrate that switching of BTO polarization results in a large electric potential change in Ge. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirms the interface sharpness, and BTO tetragonality. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) indicates the absence of any low permittivity interlayer at the interface with Ge. Using piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM), we confirm the presence of fully switchable, stable ferroelectric polarization in BTO that appears to be single domain. Using microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), we clearly demonstrate a ferroelectric field effect.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms7067},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 14 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Wed Jan 14 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 22 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Projector augmented-wave method
journal, December 1994


Efficiency of ab-initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set
journal, July 1996


Special points for Brillouin-zone integrations
journal, June 1976

  • Monkhorst, Hendrik J.; Pack, James D.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 13, Issue 12, p. 5188-5192
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.13.5188

Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set
journal, October 1996


From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented-wave method
journal, January 1999


Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulation of the liquid-metal–amorphous-semiconductor transition in germanium
journal, May 1994