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Title: Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

Abstract

When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm⁻¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which aremore » highlighted here.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sydor Instruments, LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)
  3. Dowling College, Shirley, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1183835
Report Number(s):
BNL-107866-2015-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; RSINAK; R&D Project: CO-004; KC0304030
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; infrared detectors; particle beam detectors; solvents; mirrors; time resolved spectroscopy

Citation Formats

Grills, David C., Farrington, Jaime A., Layne, Bobby H., Preses, Jack M., Bernstein, Herbert J., and Wishart, James F. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4918728.
Grills, David C., Farrington, Jaime A., Layne, Bobby H., Preses, Jack M., Bernstein, Herbert J., & Wishart, James F. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4918728.
Grills, David C., Farrington, Jaime A., Layne, Bobby H., Preses, Jack M., Bernstein, Herbert J., and Wishart, James F. Mon . "Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4918728. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1183835.
@article{osti_1183835,
title = {Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility},
author = {Grills, David C. and Farrington, Jaime A. and Layne, Bobby H. and Preses, Jack M. and Bernstein, Herbert J. and Wishart, James F.},
abstractNote = {When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm⁻¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4918728},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 4,
volume = 86,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 27 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Mon Apr 27 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}

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Cited by: 7works
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  • When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of amore » unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330 to 1051 cm{sup −1}. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ∼40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ∼100 μOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.« less
  • Pulse radiolysis, utilizing short pulses of high-energy electrons from accelerators, is a powerful method for rapidly generating reduced or oxidized species and other free radicals in solution. Combined with fast time-resolved spectroscopic detection (typically in the ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared), it is invaluable for monitoring the reactivity of species subjected to radiolysis on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, it is often difficult to identify the transient intermediates definitively due to a lack of structural information in the spectral bands. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy offers the structural specificity necessary for mechanistic investigations but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis experiments. Formore » example, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy has only been applied to a handful of gas-phase studies, limited mainly by several technical challenges. We have exploited recent developments in commercial external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) technology to construct a nanosecond TRIR apparatus that has allowed, for the first time, TRIR spectra to be recorded following pulse radiolysis of condensed-phase samples. Near single-shot sensitivity of DeltaOD <1 x 10(-3) has been achieved, with a response time of <20 ns. Using two continuous-wave EC-QCLs, the current apparatus covers a probe region from 1890-2084 cm(-1), and TRIR spectra are acquired on a point-by-point basis by recording transient absorption decay traces at specific IR wavelengths and combining these to generate spectral time slices. The utility of the apparatus has been demonstrated by monitoring the formation and decay of the one-electron reduced form of the CO(2) reduction catalyst, [Re(I)(bpy)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)](+), in acetonitrile with nanosecond time resolution following pulse radiolysis. Characteristic red-shifting of the nu(CO) IR bands confirmed that one-electron reduction of the complex took place. The availability of TRIR detection with high sensitivity opens up a wide range of mechanistic pulse radiolysis investigations that were previously difficult or impossible to perform with transient UV/visible detection.« less
  • The design and operation of a time-resolved electron spin echo spectrometer suitable for detecting transient radicals produced by 3 MeV electron radiolysis is described. Two modes of operation are available: Field swept mode which generates a normal EPR spectrum and kinetic mode in which the time dependence of a single EPR line is monitored. Techniques which may be used to minimize the effects of nonideal microwave pulses and overlapping sample tube signals are described. The principal advantages of the spin echo method over other time-resolved EPR methods are: (1) Improved time resolution (presently approx.30--50 nsec) allows monitoring of fast changesmore » in EPR signals of transient radicals, (2) Lower susceptibility to interference between the EPR signal and the electron beam pulse at short times, and (3) Lack of dependence of transient signals on microwave field amplitude or static field inhomogeneity at short times. The performance of the instrument is illustrated using CIDEP from acetate radical formed in pulsed radiolysis of aqueous solutions of potassium acetate. The relaxation time and CIDEP enhancement factor obtained for this radical using the spin echo method compare favorably with previous determinations using direct detection EPR. Radical decay rates yield estimates of initial radical concentrations of 10/sup -4/10/sup -3/M per electron pulse. The Bloch equations are solved to give an expression for the echo signal for samples exhibiting CIDEP using arbitrary microwave pulse widths and distributions of Larmor frequencies. Conditions are discussed under which the time-dependent signal would be distorted by deviations from an ideal nonselective 90/sup 0/--tau--180/sup 0/ pulse sequence.« less
  • The BNL Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF) uses a laser-pulsed photocathode, radio-frequency electron gun to generate {>=}7 ps pulses of 8.7 MeV electrons for pulse radiolysis experiments. The compact and operationally simple accelerator system includes synchronized laser pulses that can be used to probe or excite the electron-pulsed samples to examine the dynamics and reactivity of chemical species on the picosecond time scale.
  • The timescale and/or products of photo-induced decomposition of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) were investigated at ambient pressure and compared with products formed at elevated pressure (i.e. 8 GPa). Ultrafast time-resolved infrared and steady state Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopies were used to probe TATB and its products after photoexcitation with a 5 ns pulse of 532 nm light. At ambient pressure, transient spectra of TATB indicate that the molecule has significantly decomposed within 60 ns; transient spectra also indicate that formation of CO{sub 2}, an observed decomposition product, is complete within 30-40 s. Proof of principle time resolved experiments at elevated pressuresmore » were performed and are discussed briefly. Comparison of steady-state FTIR spectra obtained at ambient and elevated pressure (ca. 8 GPa) indicate that the decomposition products vary with pressure. We find evidence for water as a decomposition product only at elevated pressure.« less