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Title: Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Cr x(Bi 0.1Sb 0.9) 2-xTe 3

Abstract

To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a “Dirac-mass gap” in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr₀.₀₈(Bi₀.₁Sb₀.₉)₁.₉₂Te₃. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship Δ(r)∝n(r) is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron–dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm². In addition, these observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, tomore » achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [6]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  4. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  5. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); North Univ. of China, Shanxi (China)
  6. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Univ. of St. Andrews, Fife (Scotland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1182501
Report Number(s):
BNL-107406-2015-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424; R&D Project: PO016; PO010; KC0202020; KC0201060
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 112; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ferromagnetic topological insulator; dirac-mass gapmap; magnetic dopant atom effects

Citation Formats

Lee, Inhee, Kim, Chung Koo, Lee, Jinho, Billinge, Simon J. L., Zhong, Ruidan D., Schneeloch, John A., Liu, Tiansheng S., Valla, Tonica, Tranquada, John M., Gu, Genda D., and Davis, J. C. Séamus. Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1424322112.
Lee, Inhee, Kim, Chung Koo, Lee, Jinho, Billinge, Simon J. L., Zhong, Ruidan D., Schneeloch, John A., Liu, Tiansheng S., Valla, Tonica, Tranquada, John M., Gu, Genda D., & Davis, J. C. Séamus. Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1424322112.
Lee, Inhee, Kim, Chung Koo, Lee, Jinho, Billinge, Simon J. L., Zhong, Ruidan D., Schneeloch, John A., Liu, Tiansheng S., Valla, Tonica, Tranquada, John M., Gu, Genda D., and Davis, J. C. Séamus. Tue . "Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1424322112. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1182501.
@article{osti_1182501,
title = {Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3},
author = {Lee, Inhee and Kim, Chung Koo and Lee, Jinho and Billinge, Simon J. L. and Zhong, Ruidan D. and Schneeloch, John A. and Liu, Tiansheng S. and Valla, Tonica and Tranquada, John M. and Gu, Genda D. and Davis, J. C. Séamus},
abstractNote = {To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a “Dirac-mass gap” in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr₀.₀₈(Bi₀.₁Sb₀.₉)₁.₉₂Te₃. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship Δ(r)∝n(r) is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron–dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm². In addition, these observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1424322112},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 5,
volume = 112,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 20 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Tue Jan 20 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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