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Title: Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

Abstract

Here, we developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16 and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. Lastly, a 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [5];  [1];  [6];  [1];  [1];  [6];  [7];  [5];  [5];  [3];  [1]
  1. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Dept. of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
  2. ActivX Biosciences, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Radiation Oncology
  4. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Cell Biology
  5. Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). College of Life Sciences
  6. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dana Farber Cancer Inst.
  7. Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea). Chemical Kinomics Research Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1179608
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1171855
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; CA130876-05
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2623
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Tan, Li, Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon, Gurbani, Deepak, Patricelli, Matthew, Hunter, John, Geng, Jiefei, Herhaus, Lina, Zhang, Jianming, Pauls, Eduardo, Ham, Youngjin, Choi, Hwan Geun, Xie, Ting, Deng, Xianming, Buhrlage, Sara J., Sim, Taebo, Cohen, Philip, Sapkota, Gopal, Westover, Kenneth D., and Gray, Nathanael S. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2). United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1021/jm500480k.
Tan, Li, Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon, Gurbani, Deepak, Patricelli, Matthew, Hunter, John, Geng, Jiefei, Herhaus, Lina, Zhang, Jianming, Pauls, Eduardo, Ham, Youngjin, Choi, Hwan Geun, Xie, Ting, Deng, Xianming, Buhrlage, Sara J., Sim, Taebo, Cohen, Philip, Sapkota, Gopal, Westover, Kenneth D., & Gray, Nathanael S. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2). United States. doi:10.1021/jm500480k.
Tan, Li, Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon, Gurbani, Deepak, Patricelli, Matthew, Hunter, John, Geng, Jiefei, Herhaus, Lina, Zhang, Jianming, Pauls, Eduardo, Ham, Youngjin, Choi, Hwan Geun, Xie, Ting, Deng, Xianming, Buhrlage, Sara J., Sim, Taebo, Cohen, Philip, Sapkota, Gopal, Westover, Kenneth D., and Gray, Nathanael S. Thu . "Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)". United States. doi:10.1021/jm500480k.
@article{osti_1179608,
title = {Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)},
author = {Tan, Li and Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon and Gurbani, Deepak and Patricelli, Matthew and Hunter, John and Geng, Jiefei and Herhaus, Lina and Zhang, Jianming and Pauls, Eduardo and Ham, Youngjin and Choi, Hwan Geun and Xie, Ting and Deng, Xianming and Buhrlage, Sara J. and Sim, Taebo and Cohen, Philip and Sapkota, Gopal and Westover, Kenneth D. and Gray, Nathanael S.},
abstractNote = {Here, we developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16 and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. Lastly, a 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.},
doi = {10.1021/jm500480k},
journal = {Journal of Medicinal Chemistry},
number = 1,
volume = 58,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jul 17 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Thu Jul 17 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1021/jm500480k

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 20works
Citation information provided by
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  • Here, we developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16more » and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. Lastly, a 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.« less
  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential drugs administered topically or systematically for the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases such as pemphigus. However, a certain proportion of patients does not respond well to GCs. Although studies on the relationship between cytokines and GC insensitivity in local tissues have attracted attention recently, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) for GC insensitivity in epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we report that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) {alpha} reduces GC-induced transactivation of endogenous genes as well as a reporter plasmid which contains GC responsive element (GRE) in human epidermal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The GC insensitivity by TNF{alpha} wasmore » not accompanied by changes in mRNA expressions of GR isoforms ({alpha} or {beta}). However, we observed that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) significantly sensitized the GC-induced transactivation of anti-inflammatory genes (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 gene in the presence of TNF{alpha}. Additionally, we observed that TNF{alpha} reduced prednisolone (PSL)-dependent nuclear translocation of GR, which was restored by pre-treatment of MEK-1 inhibitors. This is the first study demonstrating a role of the MEK-1/ERK cascade in TNF{alpha}-mediated GC insensitivity. Our data suggest that overexpression of TNF{alpha} leads to topical GC insensitivity by reducing GR nuclear translocation in keratinocytes, and our findings also suggest that inhibiting the MEK-1/ERK cascade may offer a therapeutic potential for increasing GC efficacy in epidermis where sufficient inflammatory suppression is required.« less
  • Highlights: • Both ACE and MEK1/2 inhibition are beneficial on cardiac function in Lmna cardiomyopathy. • MEK1/2 inhibitor has beneficial effects beyond ACE inhibition for Lmna cardiomyopathy. • These results provide further preclinical rationale for a clinical trial of a MEK1/2 inhibitor. - Abstract: Background: Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding A-type nuclear lamins can cause dilated cardiomyopathy with or without skeletal muscular dystrophy. Previous studies have shown abnormally increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity in hearts of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice, a small animal model. Inhibition of this abnormal signaling activity with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitormore » has beneficial effects on heart function and survival in these mice. However, such treatment has not been examined relative to any standard of care intervention for dilated cardiomyopathy or heart failure. We therefore examined the effects of an angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on left ventricular function in Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice and assessed if adding a MEK1/2 inhibitor would provide added benefit. Methods: Male Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice were treated with the ACE inhibitor benazepril, the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib or both. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure left ventricular diameters and fractional shortening was calculated. Results: Treatment of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice with either benazepril or selumetinib started at 8 weeks of age, before the onset of detectable left ventricular dysfunction, lead to statistically significantly increased fractional shortening compared to placebo at 16 weeks of age. There was a trend towards a great value for fractional shortening in the selumetinib-treated mice. When treatment was started at 16 weeks of age, after the onset of left ventricular dysfunction, the addition of selumetinib treatment to benazepril lead to a statistically significant increase in left ventricular fractional shortening at 20 weeks of age. Conclusions: Both ACE inhibition and MEK1/2 inhibition have beneficial effects on left ventricular function in Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice and both drugs together have a synergistic benefit when initiated after the onset of left ventricular dysfunction. These results provide further preclinical rationale for a clinical trial of a MEK1/2 inhibitor in addition to standard of care in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy caused by LMNA mutations.« less
  • Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a putative tumor suppressor. When transiently overexpressed, MKP-3 dephosphorylates and inactivates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Little is known about the roles of endogenous MKP-3, however. We previously showed that MKP-3 is upregulated in cell lines that express oncogenic Ras. Here we tested the roles of endogenous MKP-3 in modulating ERK1/2 under conditions of chronic stimulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras. We used two cell lines: H-ras MCF10A, breast epithelial cells engineered to express H-Ras, and DLD-1, colon cancer cells that express endogenous Ki-Ras. First, we found thatmore » MKP-3 acts in a negative feedback loop to suppress basal ERK1/2 when oncogenic Ras stimulates the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 cascade. ERK1/2 was required to maintain elevated MKP-3, indicative of a negative feedback loop. Accordingly, knockdown of MKP-3, via siRNA, increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Second, by using siRNA, we found that MKP-3 helps establish the sensitivity of ERK1/2 to extracellular activators by limiting the duration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Third, we found that the regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2. Potent ERK1/2 activators stimulated the loss of MKP-3 within 30 min due to an ERK1/2-dependent decrease in MKP-3 protein stability. MKP-3 levels recovered within 120 min due to ERK1/2-dependent resynthesis. Preventing MKP-3 resynthesis, via siRNA, prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Altogether, these results suggest that under the pressure of oncogenic Ras expression, MKP-3 reins in ERK1/2 by serving in ERK1/2-dependent negative feedback pathways.« less