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Title: Detonation Energy Densities from the Cylinder Test

Abstract

Abstract not provided.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1179424
Report Number(s):
LLNL-TR-666420
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Souers, P. C., and Vitello, P. A.. Detonation Energy Densities from the Cylinder Test. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.2172/1179424.
Souers, P. C., & Vitello, P. A.. Detonation Energy Densities from the Cylinder Test. United States. doi:10.2172/1179424.
Souers, P. C., and Vitello, P. A.. 2015. "Detonation Energy Densities from the Cylinder Test". United States. doi:10.2172/1179424. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1179424.
@article{osti_1179424,
title = {Detonation Energy Densities from the Cylinder Test},
author = {Souers, P. C. and Vitello, P. A.},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {10.2172/1179424},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 1
}

Technical Report:

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  • The report covers in detail the test and the supporting data, and analyses used to answer the objectives. The supporting data and analyses are provided for the test development, selection of equipment and procedures, determination of BangBox volume, aerosol homogeneity, and the detonation products of TNT, the burn products of double-base propellant and composite propellant, and the detonation products of foam-attenuated TNT. All trials were accomplished in an air supported building (BangBox). Sampling was accomplished with real time instruments for CO2, CO, NOx, O3, and SO2,; canister samplers for SF6, C02, CO, and volatile hydrocarbons; Quartz fiber filters with backupmore » XAD-2 resin cartridges for semivolatile organics, and various instruments for size and mass of particulates. For each analyte measured an emission factor was calculated by the concentration times volume of the building and by the carbon balance method. The carbon balance method is based on the conservation of carbon in the detonation or burn and thus become the trace element used as the basis for determining emission factors.« less
  • The report covers the OB/OD field tests A, B, and C using the methodology and technology developed in the BangBox (BB) test for use on the fixed-wing aircraft (FWAC). Field test A was a checkout of the equipment and sampling selected from the BB test, and the development of procedures for sampling the TNT detonation crater soil, and the particle fallout In the surrounding area. Triple-base propellant was also burned in pans with the area sampled to 30-m with fallout pans. The analytes in both the air emission and the soil were identify and quantified. Field test B used TNTmore » as the explosive and manufacturing residue as the burn material. Air sampling with the FWAC and soil sampling provided estimates of emission factors (EF) and soil contaminates that were detected above background levels. Suspended TNT detonations and manufacturing residue bums were also characterized for emission products. Phase C test using refinements in sampling and analysis from the previous phases provided data for TNT, composition B, explosive D, and RDX detonations and manufacturing residue single-base (M1,M6) propellant bums. The EF data from the TNT field tests were examined and compared with BB data; the results were comparable in the analytes detected and the level of analytes detected. The results indicate an efficiency for the detonation >92 percent (Continued on reverse) Opening burning; open detonation;OB/OD; TNT; Double base propellant; manufacturers residue propellant; air emissions; thermal treatment; carbon balance; and emission factor.« less
  • The report addresses the gaseous and particulate sampling of TNT detonations and double-base and manufactures residue propellant burns. All trials were accomplished in an air supported building (BangBox). Sampling was accomplished with real time instruments for CO2, CO, NOx, 03, and SO2; canister samplers for SF6, CO2, CO, and volatile hydrocarbons; Quartz fiber filters with backup XAD-2 resin cartridges for semivolatile organics, and various instruments for size and mass of particles. For each analyte measured an emission factor was calculated by the concentration times volume of the building and by the carbon balance method. The carbon balance method is basedmore » on the conservation of carbon in the detonation or burn and thus becomes the trace element used as the basis for determining emission factors. The mass balance of carbon in the TNT detonation was established in the BangBox with CO, contributing 97 percent of the total carbon, CO carbon (0.50 percent), semivolatile and non volatile organics carbon (0.57 percent), and soot (1.7 percent). open burning; open detonation; O/OD; TNT; double base propellant; manufacturers residue propellant; air emissions; thermal treatment; carbon balance; and emission factor.« less
  • The results of temperature measuring experiments conducted for Rainier shot, Operational Plumbbob are described. The temperature distribution in the surrounding tuff resulting from the detonation of an underground nuclear device yielding 1.7 kilotons of energy has been measured. Data indicate peak temperatures in the vicinity of 90 C existing in the central regions which drop rapidly to approach ambient temperatures at distances of about 180 feet from the original ground zero. Based on measurements taken in three holes drilled into the central regions, contours of constant temperature are constructed. The temperature picture is consistent with the consideration that most ofmore » the heat entered the water contained originally in the tuff and the unconsolidated material which filled the cavity after its initial collapse. The amount of energy contained in the central regions in the form of tuff heated to below 90 C is roughly estimated to be greater than one-half of the total energy release. An unsuccessful attempt to measure the temperature rise across the shock front of the pressure wave produced by the detonation is described, and reasons for failure are discussed.« less