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Title: Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-reliable Green Electricity Internetworks

Abstract

This project, the first of its kind, proposes a new architecture for decentralized management and control of future electricity grids with millions of decision-makers. These economically motivated decision-makers are called prosumers (producer-consumers). Prosumers can produce, consume, and/or store electricity and make strategic decisions enabled by communication networks. Prosumers can be as large as a utility or as small as an electric vehicle or a smart house with a home energy management system. The report first provides an impression of the functionality envisioned in prosumer-based smart grids and the philosophy behind their design. The architecture is intended to provide a platform for many possibilities in service definition and trading. The functionality of the architecture is identified by functional and non-functional requirements related to decentralized control and optimization. In this report, three key technologies are proposed for enabling distributed operation and control in prosumer-based smart grids. The first technology is a cyber-infrastructure model, which provides an underlying framework for distributed communication and computation in smart grids. The model is based on service-oriented computing paradigm and is compatible with the existing service-oriented technologies, used in enterprise computing, such as Web Services. However, it extends these technologies for handling the hard-to-predict real-time aspects ofmore » smart grids by introducing resource-aware service deployment and quality-of-service (QoS)-aware service monitoring phases. The second technology is a distributed frequency regulation (DFR) framework, which can ensure midterm frequency stability while avoiding inter-area oscillations and using a limited control effort. DFR can complement today’s Automatic Generation Control (AGC) systems by providing an advanced protocol for coordination between AGC systems of different prosumers. The main advantage of the DFR technology is that each frequency regulator only needs to communicate with its neighbors in the network. The efficacy of DFR is shown through simulations on real-world electric energy systems of different scale and complexity. The third technology introduced in this project is decentralized unit commitment (DUC) for heterogeneous prosumers. The DUC technology is a new scalable method for formulating and solving a distributed energy scheduling problem. The algorithm extends the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) and includes several heuristics to mitigate oscillations and traps in local optimality that result from the nonconvexity of unit commitment. The main advantages of DUC is that it can solve the unit commitment problem for large-scale power systems of more than 3,000 nodes faster than the state-of-the-art, centralized methods, and that it is scalable to energy scheduling problems of prosumer systems of any size. In summary, this report illustrates that the distributed architecture for prosumer-based power grids is an enabler of transforming aging power grids into sustainable, resilient, reliable, and efficient smart grids with some desirable functionalities similar to the Internet.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Georgia Tech Research Corp, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1179012
Report Number(s):
DOE-GTRC-00225
DOE Contract Number:  
AR0000225
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; 42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Grijalva, Santiago, and Honarvar Nazari, Masoud. Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-reliable Green Electricity Internetworks. United States: N. p., 2012. Web.
Grijalva, Santiago, & Honarvar Nazari, Masoud. Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-reliable Green Electricity Internetworks. United States.
Grijalva, Santiago, and Honarvar Nazari, Masoud. Sun . "Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-reliable Green Electricity Internetworks". United States.
@article{osti_1179012,
title = {Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-reliable Green Electricity Internetworks},
author = {Grijalva, Santiago and Honarvar Nazari, Masoud},
abstractNote = {This project, the first of its kind, proposes a new architecture for decentralized management and control of future electricity grids with millions of decision-makers. These economically motivated decision-makers are called prosumers (producer-consumers). Prosumers can produce, consume, and/or store electricity and make strategic decisions enabled by communication networks. Prosumers can be as large as a utility or as small as an electric vehicle or a smart house with a home energy management system. The report first provides an impression of the functionality envisioned in prosumer-based smart grids and the philosophy behind their design. The architecture is intended to provide a platform for many possibilities in service definition and trading. The functionality of the architecture is identified by functional and non-functional requirements related to decentralized control and optimization. In this report, three key technologies are proposed for enabling distributed operation and control in prosumer-based smart grids. The first technology is a cyber-infrastructure model, which provides an underlying framework for distributed communication and computation in smart grids. The model is based on service-oriented computing paradigm and is compatible with the existing service-oriented technologies, used in enterprise computing, such as Web Services. However, it extends these technologies for handling the hard-to-predict real-time aspects of smart grids by introducing resource-aware service deployment and quality-of-service (QoS)-aware service monitoring phases. The second technology is a distributed frequency regulation (DFR) framework, which can ensure midterm frequency stability while avoiding inter-area oscillations and using a limited control effort. DFR can complement today’s Automatic Generation Control (AGC) systems by providing an advanced protocol for coordination between AGC systems of different prosumers. The main advantage of the DFR technology is that each frequency regulator only needs to communicate with its neighbors in the network. The efficacy of DFR is shown through simulations on real-world electric energy systems of different scale and complexity. The third technology introduced in this project is decentralized unit commitment (DUC) for heterogeneous prosumers. The DUC technology is a new scalable method for formulating and solving a distributed energy scheduling problem. The algorithm extends the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) and includes several heuristics to mitigate oscillations and traps in local optimality that result from the nonconvexity of unit commitment. The main advantages of DUC is that it can solve the unit commitment problem for large-scale power systems of more than 3,000 nodes faster than the state-of-the-art, centralized methods, and that it is scalable to energy scheduling problems of prosumer systems of any size. In summary, this report illustrates that the distributed architecture for prosumer-based power grids is an enabler of transforming aging power grids into sustainable, resilient, reliable, and efficient smart grids with some desirable functionalities similar to the Internet.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1179012}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {1}
}

Technical Report:
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