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Title: Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

Abstract

Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1177076
Report Number(s):
SAND2014-17053
536882
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Orendorff, Christopher J., Lamb, Joshua, Steele, Leigh Anna Marie, and Spangler, Scott Wilmer. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.2172/1177076.
Orendorff, Christopher J., Lamb, Joshua, Steele, Leigh Anna Marie, & Spangler, Scott Wilmer. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.. United States. doi:10.2172/1177076.
Orendorff, Christopher J., Lamb, Joshua, Steele, Leigh Anna Marie, and Spangler, Scott Wilmer. Wed . "Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.". United States. doi:10.2172/1177076. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1177076.
@article{osti_1177076,
title = {Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.},
author = {Orendorff, Christopher J. and Lamb, Joshua and Steele, Leigh Anna Marie and Spangler, Scott Wilmer},
abstractNote = {Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.},
doi = {10.2172/1177076},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Wed Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}

Technical Report:

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  • An evaluation of 5-Ah and 21-Ah silver--zinc batteries was made to determine their suitability to meet the energy storage requirements of the bus vehicle, 3 small probes, and large probe for the Venus multi-probe mission. The evaluation included a 4-Ah battery for the small probe, a 21-Ah battery for the large probe, one battery of each size for the bus vehicle power, a periodic cycling test on each size battery, and a wet stand test of charged and discharged cells of both cell designs. The study on the probe batteries and bus vehicle batteries included both electrical and thermal simulationmore » for the entire mission. The effects on silver migration and zinc penetration of the cellophane separators caused by the various test parameters were determined by visual and x-ray fluorescence analysis. The 5-Ah batteries supported the power requirements for the bus vehicle and small probe. The 21-Ah large probe battery supplied the required mission power. Both probe batteries delivered in excess of 132 percent of rated capacity at the completion of the mission simulation. (auth)« less
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  • Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less