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Title: Lithium ion battery with improved safety

Abstract

A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF 6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

Inventors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
The University Of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1175697
Patent Number(s):
7,026,074
Application Number:
10/077,569
Assignee:
The University of Chicago (Chicago, IL) OSTI
DOE Contract Number:
W-31-109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Patent
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Chen, Chun-hua, Hyung, Yoo Eup, Vissers, Donald R., and Amine, Khalil. Lithium ion battery with improved safety. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Chen, Chun-hua, Hyung, Yoo Eup, Vissers, Donald R., & Amine, Khalil. Lithium ion battery with improved safety. United States.
Chen, Chun-hua, Hyung, Yoo Eup, Vissers, Donald R., and Amine, Khalil. Tue . "Lithium ion battery with improved safety". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1175697.
@article{osti_1175697,
title = {Lithium ion battery with improved safety},
author = {Chen, Chun-hua and Hyung, Yoo Eup and Vissers, Donald R. and Amine, Khalil},
abstractNote = {A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Apr 11 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Tue Apr 11 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}

Patent:

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  • The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility andmore » low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.« less
  • A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.
  • An electrochemical cell is described that has a non-aqueous electrolyte which comprises a solute and at least one solvent, a lithium negative electrode, and a positive active material of said cell which is slightly soluble in said solvent, the surface of the negative electrode is alloyed with at least one metal chosen from the group consisting of lead, tin, antimony and silver, to prevent selective localized deposition onto the lithium electrode of metal reduced from the positive active material during storage. The improvement is particularly applicable to cells in which the positive active material is lead oxide and said solventmore » is dioxolane.« less
  • The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extrudedmore » into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.« less