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Title: Deformations and stress in PMMA during hard x-ray exposure for deep lithography.

Abstract

The availability of high-energy, high-flux, collimated synchrotrons radiation has extended the application of deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) to thickness values of the PMMA resist of several millimeters. Some of the most severe limitations come from plastic deformation, stress, and cracks induced in PMMA during exposure and development. We have observed and characterized these phenomena quantitatively. Profilometry measurements revealed that the PMMA is subjected either to local shrinkage or to expansion, while compression and expansion evolve over time. Due to material loss and crosslinking, the material undergoes a shrinkage, while the radiation-induced decomposition generates gases expanding the polymer matrix. The overall dynamics of the material microrelief and stress during and after the exposure depend on the balance between compaction and outgassing. These depend in turn on the exposure conditions (spectrum; dose, dose rate, seaming, temperature), post-exposure storage conditions, PMMA material properties and thickness, and also on the size and geometry of the exposed patterns.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab., IL (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
11742
Report Number(s):
ANL/XFD/CP-98715
TRN: US0102098
DOE Contract Number:  
W-31109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: SPIE 1999 Symposium on Micromachining and Microfabrication, Santa Clara, CA (US), 09/20/1999--09/22/1999; Other Information: PBD: 17 Aug 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; PMMA; MASKING; DEFORMATION; RADIATION EFFECTS; DOSE RATES; X RADIATION; SHRINKAGE; DECOMPOSITION; EXPANSION

Citation Formats

Moldovan, N. Deformations and stress in PMMA during hard x-ray exposure for deep lithography.. United States: N. p., 1999. Web.
Moldovan, N. Deformations and stress in PMMA during hard x-ray exposure for deep lithography.. United States.
Moldovan, N. Tue . "Deformations and stress in PMMA during hard x-ray exposure for deep lithography.". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/11742.
@article{osti_11742,
title = {Deformations and stress in PMMA during hard x-ray exposure for deep lithography.},
author = {Moldovan, N.},
abstractNote = {The availability of high-energy, high-flux, collimated synchrotrons radiation has extended the application of deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) to thickness values of the PMMA resist of several millimeters. Some of the most severe limitations come from plastic deformation, stress, and cracks induced in PMMA during exposure and development. We have observed and characterized these phenomena quantitatively. Profilometry measurements revealed that the PMMA is subjected either to local shrinkage or to expansion, while compression and expansion evolve over time. Due to material loss and crosslinking, the material undergoes a shrinkage, while the radiation-induced decomposition generates gases expanding the polymer matrix. The overall dynamics of the material microrelief and stress during and after the exposure depend on the balance between compaction and outgassing. These depend in turn on the exposure conditions (spectrum; dose, dose rate, seaming, temperature), post-exposure storage conditions, PMMA material properties and thickness, and also on the size and geometry of the exposed patterns.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1999},
month = {8}
}

Conference:
Other availability
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