# Investigations of Beam Dynamics Issues at Current and Future Hadron Accelerators

## Abstract

Final Report Abstract for DE-FG02-99ER4110, May 15, 2011- October 15, 2014 There is a synergy between the fields of Beam Dynamics (BD) in modern particle accelerators and Applied Mathematics (AMa). We have formulated significant problems in BD and have developed and applied tools within the contexts of dynamical systems, topological methods, numerical analysis and scientific computing, probability and stochastic processes, and mathematical statistics. We summarize the three main areas of our AMa work since 2011. First, we continued our study of Vlasov-Maxwell systems. Previously, we developed a state of the art algorithm and code (VM3@A) to calculate coherent synchrotron radiation in single pass systems. In this cycle we carefully analyzed the major expense, namely the integral-over-history (IOH), and developed two approaches to speed up integration. The first strategy uses a representation of the Bessel function J0 in terms of exponentials. The second relies on “local sequences” developed recently for radiation boundary conditions, which are used to reduce computational domains. Although motivated by practicality, both strategies involve interesting and rather deep analysis and approximation theory. As an alternative to VM3@A, we are integrating Maxwell’s equations by a time-stepping method, bypass- ing the IOH, using a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. DG ismore »

- Authors:

- Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1172385

- Report Number(s):
- DOE-UNM-ER41104

- DOE Contract Number:
- FG02-99ER41104

- Resource Type:
- Technical Report

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Vlasov-Maxwell System; Polarization Physics; Free Electron Laser (FEL); Applied Mathematics and Scientific Computing; Method of Averaging; Discontinuous Galerkin Method; Wave Equation; Radiation Boundary Conditions; Invariant Spin Field; Stroboscopic Averaging; Amplitude Dependent Spin Tune; Fibre Bundle; Yang-Mills; Klimontovich-Maxwell; BBGKY Hierarchy; Microscopic to Macroscopic

### Citation Formats

```
Ellison, James, Lau, Stephen, Heinemann, Klaus, and Bizzozero, David.
```*Investigations of Beam Dynamics Issues at Current and Future Hadron Accelerators*. United States: N. p., 2015.
Web. doi:10.2172/1172385.

```
Ellison, James, Lau, Stephen, Heinemann, Klaus, & Bizzozero, David.
```*Investigations of Beam Dynamics Issues at Current and Future Hadron Accelerators*. United States. doi:10.2172/1172385.

```
Ellison, James, Lau, Stephen, Heinemann, Klaus, and Bizzozero, David. Thu .
"Investigations of Beam Dynamics Issues at Current and Future Hadron Accelerators". United States. doi:10.2172/1172385. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1172385.
```

```
@article{osti_1172385,
```

title = {Investigations of Beam Dynamics Issues at Current and Future Hadron Accelerators},

author = {Ellison, James and Lau, Stephen and Heinemann, Klaus and Bizzozero, David},

abstractNote = {Final Report Abstract for DE-FG02-99ER4110, May 15, 2011- October 15, 2014 There is a synergy between the fields of Beam Dynamics (BD) in modern particle accelerators and Applied Mathematics (AMa). We have formulated significant problems in BD and have developed and applied tools within the contexts of dynamical systems, topological methods, numerical analysis and scientific computing, probability and stochastic processes, and mathematical statistics. We summarize the three main areas of our AMa work since 2011. First, we continued our study of Vlasov-Maxwell systems. Previously, we developed a state of the art algorithm and code (VM3@A) to calculate coherent synchrotron radiation in single pass systems. In this cycle we carefully analyzed the major expense, namely the integral-over-history (IOH), and developed two approaches to speed up integration. The first strategy uses a representation of the Bessel function J0 in terms of exponentials. The second relies on “local sequences” developed recently for radiation boundary conditions, which are used to reduce computational domains. Although motivated by practicality, both strategies involve interesting and rather deep analysis and approximation theory. As an alternative to VM3@A, we are integrating Maxwell’s equations by a time-stepping method, bypass- ing the IOH, using a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. DG is a generalization of Finite Element and Finite Volume methods. It is spectrally convergent, unlike the commonly used Finite Difference methods, and can handle complicated vacuum chamber geometries. We have applied this in several contexts and have obtained very nice results including an explanation of an experiment at the Canadian Light Source, where the geometry is quite complex. Second, we continued our study of spin dynamics in storage rings. There is much current and proposed activity where spin polarized beams are being used in testing the Standard Model and its modifications. Our work has focused on invariant spin fields (ISFs) and amplitude dependent spin tunes (ADSTs), which are essential for estimating beam polarization. Several algorithms have been developed since the 1980s for computing the ISF, among them the Heinemann- Hoffstaetter method of stroboscopic averaging (SA) which is implemented in the code SPRINT. SA, which computes the ISF by using spin tracking data, can find the ISF to computer precision if it exists and thus can give evidence for existence of the ISF. Central to our work is resolving the ISF conjecture, which says that, off orbital resonance, an ISF exists. Thus Heinemann developed, in his 2010 PhD thesis, a new framework which unifies and generalizes the notions of ISF and ADST by using bundle theory. This lead to a long paper which was a major collaborative effort during the recent cycle. In a nutshell, our bundle approach elegantly unifies the dynamics of spin-1/2 and spin-1 particles, e.g., protons and deuterons. In fact it is well known that these two kinds of dynamics are driven by the same spin transfer matrix and in our approach one sees the deeper reason for this: the spin transfer matrix carries the natural dynamics of a principal bundle whereas the difference between the spin-1/2 and spin-1 dynamics lies in their different geometrical situation, i.e., different underlying associated bundles. Thus one arrives at new results for polarized beams, among them the Invariant Reduction Theorem (IRT) and the Cross Section Theorem (CST). The IRT gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the ISF to exist. The SA technique revealed, 20 years ago, that each ISF can be viewed as a complex agglomerate of spin tracking data. The bundle approach goes one step further by using the IRT and the CST to glue spin tracking data into agglomerates which are candidates for ISFs. We gain insight because the “good” agglomerates, in the presence of an ISF, are very different from the “bad” ones. Finally we mention that the bundle approach has analogies to the approach used in geometrical Yang-Mills theory. Third, we studied X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs), which are electron accelerators producing coherent undulator radiation over a wide range of frequencies from microwaves to x-rays. The photon beams produced in FEL undulators are used to study material samples in biology, material science etc. We developed a mathematical analysis, based on the 6D Lorentz system, of energetic electrons moving through a planar undulator excited by a Maxwell traveling wave field of wavelength λ. Our Method of Averaging perturbation analysis yields non-resonant and near-to-resonant normal form approximations as a function of λ, which we present in two averaging theorems. We prove the theorems in detail, error bounds and giving a tutorial on mathematically rigorous perturbation theory in a context where proofs are easily understood. To our knowledge the planar problem has not been analyzed with the generality here nor has the standard FEL pendulum system, which appears on resonance, been derived with error bounds. In addition to the domains of validity of the normal forms we obtain new insights that require further study, including a more general low gain theory. With a firm foundation in the non-collective case above we are studying the 3D collective case from start up from noise to high gain and saturation. We have formulated the noise start up as a problem of going from the microscopic Klimontovich-Maxwell to the macroscopic Vlasov-Maxwell with a Vlasov correction term. In the 1D setting, we seek an alternative to the phenomenological Vlasov approach which models shot noise by a perturbation on an initial “smooth” density. The 1D wave equation with a Klimontovich source is often the starting point for the 1D FEL high gain theory. We have a new representation of solutions which may lead to new insights.},

doi = {10.2172/1172385},

journal = {},

number = ,

volume = ,

place = {United States},

year = {2015},

month = {3}

}