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Title: Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

Abstract

The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi 0.4Co 0.2Mn 0.4O 2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li 2MnO 3∙0.5LiNi 0.44Co 0.25Mn 0.31O 2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division
  2. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Dept.
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1172039
Report Number(s):
ANL/ESD-14/10
108520
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Dunn, Jennifer B., James, Christine, Gaines, Linda G., and Gallagher, Kevin. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.2172/1172039.
Dunn, Jennifer B., James, Christine, Gaines, Linda G., & Gallagher, Kevin. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries. United States. doi:10.2172/1172039.
Dunn, Jennifer B., James, Christine, Gaines, Linda G., and Gallagher, Kevin. 2014. "Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries". United States. doi:10.2172/1172039. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1172039.
@article{osti_1172039,
title = {Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries},
author = {Dunn, Jennifer B. and James, Christine and Gaines, Linda G. and Gallagher, Kevin},
abstractNote = {The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.},
doi = {10.2172/1172039},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2014,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi 0.4Co 0.2Mn 0.4O 2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li 2MnO 3∙0.5LiNi 0.44Co 0.25Mn 0.31O 2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also anmore » emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.« less
  • This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET,more » we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.« less
  • This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn₂O₄ as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new ormore » updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.« less
  • Highlights for 1977 of Argonne National Laboratory's program on the development of lithium/metal sulfide batteries are presented. Intended applications are electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary-energy-storage applications such as load-leveling. The battery cells consist of a lithium--aluminum or lithium--silicon alloy negative electrode, an FeS or FeS/sub 2/ positive electrode, and a molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte, which requires an operating temperature of 400 to 450/sup 0/C. Most of the cells tested during the year were of a prismatic design, with capacities in the range of 100 to 200 Ah. Subcontracts were continued with industrial firms on the development of cell fabrication techniques and fabricationmore » of electrical feedthroughs and electrode separators. Proposals were solicited for the development, design, and fabrication of a 40 kWh battery to be tested in an electric van early in 1979. After testing the 40 kWh battery, electric-vehicle batteries with higher performance, longer lifetime, and potentially lower cost in mass production will be fabricated. Conceptual designs for a 6 Mwh battery module for stationary energy storage were completed. Cells of about 4 kWh capacity are to be assembled into submodules. Nearly 200 cells were fabricated by industrial subcontractors in 1977 for testing; approximately 45 additional cells of various designs were fabricated and tested at ANL to evaluate different types of electrodes, current collectors, separators, and other cell components. Work was continued on the development and testing of materials for various cell components, and post-test examinations of cells were made to evaluate the behavior of cell materials and to determine the causes of cell failure. Chemistry studies during the year were concerned primarily with the electrochemistry of FeS/sub 2/ and NiS/sub 2/ electrodes. 10 figures, 6 tables.« less
  • During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.