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Title: YSZ Coated Ferritic Stainless Steel. Phase I Final Report

  1. InnoSense LLC, Torrance, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
InnoSense LLC, Torrance, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Type / Phase:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; SOFC, Compliant glass systems; Sol-gel based coating; Near-hermetic sealing; Screen printing; Interconnects; Yttrium organometallics and metallorganics

Citation Formats

Winter, Raymond. YSZ Coated Ferritic Stainless Steel. Phase I Final Report. United States: N. p., 2015. Web.
Winter, Raymond. YSZ Coated Ferritic Stainless Steel. Phase I Final Report. United States.
Winter, Raymond. 2015. "YSZ Coated Ferritic Stainless Steel. Phase I Final Report". United States. doi:.
title = {YSZ Coated Ferritic Stainless Steel. Phase I Final Report},
author = {Winter, Raymond},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 3

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  • Hydrogen permeation through iron was studied over the temperature range 300 to 873/sup 0/K by an ultra high vacuum, monopole gas analyzer technique. Hydrogen gas input pressures were varied from 0.0043 to 0.62 atm and membrane thicknesses from 0.0165 to 0.243 cm. Volume diffusion control of the permeation process was demonstrated by the pressure and membrane thickness dependence of the steady state flux. The permeation coefficient, with an activation enthalpy found to be 8.1 +-.4 kcal/mole, was independent of both gas pressure and membrane thickness. At temperatures below approximately 600/sup 0/K, the effective diffusivity increased with both increasing hydrogen gasmore » pressure and increasing membrane thickness. The transition temperature from classical to anomalous behavior decreases with increasing thickness. Apparent activation enthalpies for diffusion were found to range from 1.6 to 8.2 kcal/mole with the lower values associated with thicker membranes. The permeation coefficient activation enthalpy was found to be 13.1 +- .4 kcal/mole while that for diffusivity was found to be 11.2 +- .45 kcal/mole. However, samples neutron irradiated at a fluence of 10/sup 17/n/cm/sup 2/ showed anomalous effects in that both effective diffusivity and permeation were reduced in value.« less
  • Ferritic stainless steels are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect applications due to their low cost and resistance to oxidation at SOFC operating temperatures. However, steel candidates face several challenges; including long term oxidation under interconnect exposure conditions, which can lead to increased electrical resistance, surface instability, and poisoning of cathodes due to volatilization of Cr. To potentially extend interconnect lifetime and improve performance, a variety of surface treatments were performed on AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel coupons prior to application of a protective spinel coating. The coated coupons were then subjected to oxidation testing at 800 and 850°C in air,more » and electrical testing at 800°C in air. While all of the surface-treatments resulted in improved surface stability (i.e., increased spallation resistance) compared to untreated AISI 441, the greatest degree of improvement (through 20,000 hours of testing at 800°C and 14,000 hours of testing at 850°C) was achieved by surface blasting.« less
  • This report describes the development and application of ray tracing to the problem of stainless steel cladding on a ferritic steel plate. Such materials are commonly found in components of nuclear power plants. An important goal of the work is to image a crack emanating perpendicular to the interface and to calculate a synthetic A-scan typical of pitch-catch or pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection methods. Ray methods are attractive for rapidly gaining insight into ultrasonic inspection of complex parts because, like finite elements, they are capable of imaging obstacles in the ray path but are less computationally intensive. In the present project,more » we extend our existing ray code RAYT3D, which we previously applied primarily in geophysics, to transversely isotropic materials such as cladding. There are three goals for this effort. First to document the ray method 3-D formulation for transversely isotropic materials, including all of the ingredients necessary to generate synthetic A-scans from a postulated model. Second, to expand awareness of the advantages of a two-point formulation wherein the ray tracing problem is formulated as a two-point boundary value problem rather than as an initial value or shooting problems as is more commonly encountered. The two-point formulation has a number of advantages, including efficiency, stability, and suitability for use in an inversion loop. Inversion is one possible long-term goal of this work. Finally, we solve a few representative examples, with the hope that readers will recognize a tool which could solve some problems of immediate interest to the NDE community, and direct our attention to those problems. 14 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.« less
  • This research was performed in support of computations to determine the distribution of hydrogen at a crack tip in an unstable stainless steel. It involved metallographic observations of the distribution of martensite at a stressed crack tip. It is concluded that the martensite phase distribution is much too fine to model realistically by the finite element method when far-field stress effects must be included. The mesh size would have to be less than 50 micrometers in order to include the effects of non-uniform distribution of martensite within a single grain. This would lead to unrealistic computation times. A reasonable compromisemore » is to assume that a finite element will be considered to change from the hydrogen diffusivity of the austenite to that of the bcc martensitic phase when the yield stress of the austenite has been reached. This should give a significantly different hydrogen distribution from the case of untransforming austenite and allow the FEM computations to verify or disprove the kinetic model of hydrogen embrittlement of unstable austenitic stainless steels.« less