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Title: Dissecting the steps of CO2 reduction: 2. The interaction of CO and CO2 with Pd/γ-Al2O3: an in situ FTIR study

Abstract

Alumina supported Pd catalysts with metal loadings of 0.5, 2.5 and 10 wt% were investigated by in situ FTIR spectroscopy in order to understand the nature of adsorbed species formed during their exposure to CO2 and CO. Exposing the annealed samples to CO2 at 295 K resulted in the formation of alumina support-bound surface species only: linear adsorbed CO2, bidentate carbonates and bicarbonates. Room temperature exposure of all three samples to CO produced IR features characteristic of both ionic and metallic Pd, as well as bands we observed upon CO2 adsorption (alumina support-bound species). Low temperature (100 K) adsorption of CO on the three samples provided information about the state of Pd after oxidation and reduction. Oxidized samples contained exclusively ionic Pd, while mostly metallic Pd was present in the reduced samples. Subsequent annealing of the CO-saturated samples revealed the facile (low temperature) reduction of PdOx species by adsorbed CO. This process was evidenced by the variations in IR bands characteristic of ionic and metallic Pd-bound CO, as well as by the appearance of IR bands associated with CO2 adsorption as a function of annealing temperature. Samples containing oxidized Pd species (oxidized, annealed or reduced) always produced CO2 upon theirmore » exposure to CO, while CO2-related surface entities were observed on samples having only fully reduced (metallic) Pd. Acknowledgements: The catalyst preparation was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. JHK also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2013 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea).« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1170486
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-100733
KC0302010
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP, 16(29):15126-15138
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
IR spectroscopy; Pd/γ-Al2O3; CO and CO2 adsorption; Lewis sites; surface hydroxyls

Citation Formats

Szanyi, Janos, and Kwak, Ja Hun. Dissecting the steps of CO2 reduction: 2. The interaction of CO and CO2 with Pd/γ-Al2O3: an in situ FTIR study. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1039/C4CP00617H.
Szanyi, Janos, & Kwak, Ja Hun. Dissecting the steps of CO2 reduction: 2. The interaction of CO and CO2 with Pd/γ-Al2O3: an in situ FTIR study. United States. doi:10.1039/C4CP00617H.
Szanyi, Janos, and Kwak, Ja Hun. Thu . "Dissecting the steps of CO2 reduction: 2. The interaction of CO and CO2 with Pd/γ-Al2O3: an in situ FTIR study". United States. doi:10.1039/C4CP00617H.
@article{osti_1170486,
title = {Dissecting the steps of CO2 reduction: 2. The interaction of CO and CO2 with Pd/γ-Al2O3: an in situ FTIR study},
author = {Szanyi, Janos and Kwak, Ja Hun},
abstractNote = {Alumina supported Pd catalysts with metal loadings of 0.5, 2.5 and 10 wt% were investigated by in situ FTIR spectroscopy in order to understand the nature of adsorbed species formed during their exposure to CO2 and CO. Exposing the annealed samples to CO2 at 295 K resulted in the formation of alumina support-bound surface species only: linear adsorbed CO2, bidentate carbonates and bicarbonates. Room temperature exposure of all three samples to CO produced IR features characteristic of both ionic and metallic Pd, as well as bands we observed upon CO2 adsorption (alumina support-bound species). Low temperature (100 K) adsorption of CO on the three samples provided information about the state of Pd after oxidation and reduction. Oxidized samples contained exclusively ionic Pd, while mostly metallic Pd was present in the reduced samples. Subsequent annealing of the CO-saturated samples revealed the facile (low temperature) reduction of PdOx species by adsorbed CO. This process was evidenced by the variations in IR bands characteristic of ionic and metallic Pd-bound CO, as well as by the appearance of IR bands associated with CO2 adsorption as a function of annealing temperature. Samples containing oxidized Pd species (oxidized, annealed or reduced) always produced CO2 upon their exposure to CO, while CO2-related surface entities were observed on samples having only fully reduced (metallic) Pd. Acknowledgements: The catalyst preparation was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. JHK also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2013 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea).},
doi = {10.1039/C4CP00617H},
journal = {Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP, 16(29):15126-15138},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Aug 07 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Thu Aug 07 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • The adsorption of CO2 and CO was investigated on a pure γ-Al2O3 support material that has been used for the preparation of Pd and Ru catalysts for the catalytic reduction of CO2. The adsorption of CO2 resulted in the formation of carbonates, bicarbonates and linearly adsorbed CO2 species. The amount and the nature of the adsorbed species were dependent on the annealing temperature of the alumina support. On γ-Al2O3 annealed at 473 K mostly bicarbonates formed, while no adsorbed CO2 was seen on this highly hydroxylated surface. With increasing calcinations temperature, i.e., increasing extent of dehydroxylation, the amounts of bothmore » surface nitrates and linear adsorbed CO2 increased, but still the most abundant surface species were bicarbonates. Surface carbonates and adsorbed CO2 can readily be removed from the alumina surface, while bicarbonates are stable to elevated temperatures. The interaction of CO with γ-Al2O3 is much weaker than that of CO2. At room temperatures CO adsorbs only on Lewis acid sites, and can be readily removed by evacuation. At 100 K CO can probe different defect sites on the alumina surface (both Lewis acid sites and surface hydroxyls). Under no conditions we have observed the formation of any carbonates or bicarbonates upon the interaction of CO with the pure alumina support. In co-adsorption experiments CO competes for adsorption sites with the linearly adsorbed CO2 on the 773 K-annealed γ-Al2O3 surface; but it does not result in the desorption of CO2, rather in the increase of weakly-held carbonate production. After the removal of adsorbed CO, CO2 moves back to its original adsorption sites, i.e., Lewis acidic Al3+ centers. The exposure of a CO2-saturated γ-Al2O3 to H2O did not affect any of the adsorbed surface species. The findings of this study will be used to rationalize the results of our ongoing in situ and in operando studies on the reduction of CO2 on supported Pd and Ru catalysts. Acknowledgements: We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences for the support of this work. The synthesis and catalyst pre-treatment portion of the work described in this manuscript was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. J.H.K. also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2013 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea).« less
  • The effect of water on the adsorption of NO2 onto a γ-Al2O3 catalyst support surface was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Upon room temperature exposure of the alumina surface to small amounts of NO2, nitrites and nitrates are formed, and at higher NO2 doses only nitrates are observed. The surface nitrates formed were of bridging monodentate, bridging bidentate, and monodentate configuration. At elevated NO2 pressures, the surface hydroxyls were consumed in their reaction with NO2 giving primarily bridge-bound nitrates. A significant amount of weakly adsorbed N2O3 was seen as well. Exposure of the NO2-saturatedmore » γ-Al2O3 surface to H2O resulted in the desorption of some NO2 + NO as H2O interacted with the weakly-held N2O3, while the bridging monodentate surface nitrates converted into monodentate nitrates. The conversion of these oxide-bound nitrates to water-solvated nitrates was observed at high water doses when the presence of liquid-like water is expected on the surface. The addition of H2O to the NO2-saturated γ-Al2O3 did not affect the amount of NOx strongly adsorbed on the support surface. In particular, no NOx desorption was observed when the NO2-saturated sample was heated to 573K prior to room temperature H2O exposure. The effect of water is completely reversible; i.e., during TPD experiments following NO2 and H2O coadsorption, the same IR spectra were observed at temperatures above that required for H2O desorption as seen for NO2 adsorption only experiments.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • No abstract prepared.
  • The effect of water on the morphology of BaO/Al2O3-based NOx storage materials was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of this multi-spectroscopy study reveal that, in the presence of water, surface Ba-nitrates convert to bulk nitrates, and water facilitates the formation of large Ba(NO3)2 particles. This process is completely reversible, i.e. after the removal of water from the storage material a significant fraction of the bulk nitrates re-convert to surface nitrates. NO2 exposure of a H2O-containing (wet) BaO/Al2O3 sample results in the formation of nitrites and bulk nitrates exclusively,more » i.e. no surface nitrates form. After further exposure to NO2, the nitrites completely convert to bulk nitrates. The amount of NOx taken up by the storage material is, however, essentially unaffected by the presence of water, regardless of whether the water was dosed prior to or after NO2 exposure. Based on the results of this study we are now able to explain most of the observations reported in the literature on the effect of water on NOx uptake on similar storage materials.« less