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Title: Synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional Nb4C3 (MXene)

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC); Re-Defining Photovoltaic Efficiency Through Molecule Scale Control (RPEMSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1168149
DOE Contract Number:
SC0001085
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Chemical Communications; Journal Volume: 50; Related Information: RPEMSC partners with Columbia University (lead); Brookhaven National Laboratory; Purdue University
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
solar (photovoltaic), electrodes - solar, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials)

Citation Formats

Ghidiu, M., Naguib, M., Shi, C., Mashtalir, O., Pan, L. M., Zhang, B., Yang, J., Gogotsi, Y., Billinge, S. J. L., and Barsoum, M. W. Synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional Nb4C3 (MXene). United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1039/C4CC03366C.
Ghidiu, M., Naguib, M., Shi, C., Mashtalir, O., Pan, L. M., Zhang, B., Yang, J., Gogotsi, Y., Billinge, S. J. L., & Barsoum, M. W. Synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional Nb4C3 (MXene). United States. doi:10.1039/C4CC03366C.
Ghidiu, M., Naguib, M., Shi, C., Mashtalir, O., Pan, L. M., Zhang, B., Yang, J., Gogotsi, Y., Billinge, S. J. L., and Barsoum, M. W. Thu . "Synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional Nb4C3 (MXene)". United States. doi:10.1039/C4CC03366C.
@article{osti_1168149,
title = {Synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional Nb4C3 (MXene)},
author = {Ghidiu, M. and Naguib, M. and Shi, C. and Mashtalir, O. and Pan, L. M. and Zhang, B. and Yang, J. and Gogotsi, Y. and Billinge, S. J. L. and Barsoum, M. W.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1039/C4CC03366C},
journal = {Chemical Communications},
number = ,
volume = 50,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Thu Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • By etching Nb 4AlC 3powders in hydrofluoric acid, a phase-pure, highly conductive, Nb 4C 3MXene – the second with formula M 4X 3– was produced. The latter's structure was investigated using pair distribution function analysis.
  • Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis, and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray, or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to thismore » promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Furthermore we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti 3C 2T x), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti 3C 2T x and suggest the optimal processes for the desired application.« less
  • Large scale synthesis and delamination of 2D Mo 2CT x (where T is a surface termination group) has been achieved by selectively etching gallium from the recently discovered nanolaminated, ternary transition metal carbide Mo 2Ga 2C. Different synthesis and delamination routes result in different flake morphologies. The resistivity of free-standing Mo 2CT x films increases by an order of magnitude as the temperature is reduced from 300 to 10 K, suggesting semiconductor-like behavior of this MXene, in contrast to Ti 3C 2T x which exhibits metallic behavior. At 10 K, the magnetoresistance is positive. Additionally, changes in electronic transport aremore » observed upon annealing of the films. When 2 μm thick films are tested as electrodes in supercapacitors, capacitances as high as 700 F cm –3 in a 1 m sulfuric acid electrolyte and high capacity retention for at least 10,000 cycles at 10 A g –1 are obtained. Free-standing Mo 2CT x films, with ≈8 wt% carbon nanotubes, perform well when tested as an electrode material for Li-ions, especially at high rates. In conclusion, at 20 and 131 C cycling rates, stable reversible capacities of 250 and 76 mAh g –1, respectively, are achieved for over 1000 cycles.« less