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Title: Enhancing the lithiation rate of silicon nanowires by the inclusion of tin

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC); Understanding Charge Separation and Transfer at Interfaces in Energy Materials (CST)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1167891
DOE Contract Number:
SC0001091
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: RSC Adv.; Journal Volume: 4 (79); Related Information: CST partners with University of Texas at Austin (lead); Sandia National Laboratories
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
solar (photovoltaic), phonons, energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly)

Citation Formats

Bogart, Timothy D., Lu, Xiaotang, Gu, Meng, Wang, Chongmin, and Korgel, Brian A. Enhancing the lithiation rate of silicon nanowires by the inclusion of tin. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1039/C4RA07418A.
Bogart, Timothy D., Lu, Xiaotang, Gu, Meng, Wang, Chongmin, & Korgel, Brian A. Enhancing the lithiation rate of silicon nanowires by the inclusion of tin. United States. doi:10.1039/C4RA07418A.
Bogart, Timothy D., Lu, Xiaotang, Gu, Meng, Wang, Chongmin, and Korgel, Brian A. Thu . "Enhancing the lithiation rate of silicon nanowires by the inclusion of tin". United States. doi:10.1039/C4RA07418A.
@article{osti_1167891,
title = {Enhancing the lithiation rate of silicon nanowires by the inclusion of tin},
author = {Bogart, Timothy D. and Lu, Xiaotang and Gu, Meng and Wang, Chongmin and Korgel, Brian A.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1039/C4RA07418A},
journal = {RSC Adv.},
number = ,
volume = 4 (79),
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Aug 28 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Thu Aug 28 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Silicon (Si) has a very high lithium storage capacity and is being explored as a negative electrode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Si nanowires can exhibit relatively stable performance for many cycles of charging; however, conductive carbon must often be added to the electrode layer to improve the rate capability due to the relatively low electrical conductivity of Si. The added carbon lowers the capacity of the electrode. Here, we show that the rate capability of Si in LIBs can be substantially enhanced by incorporating tin (Sn) into Si nanowires. The solubility of Sn in Si is very low (0.015more » at%); yet, Sn used as a seed for supercritical fluid–liquid–solid (SFLS) growth can be trapped in Si nanowires with relatively high concentration (10 at%). Such Sn-containing Si nanowires and no added conductive carbon in the electrode layer, could be cycled in LIBs with high capacity (*1000 mA h g*1 over 100 cycles) at a current density of 2.8 A g*1 (1 C). Capacities exceeding that of graphite could still be reached at cycle rates as high as 2 C. Real-time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that lithiation occurs five times faster in Si nanowires with significant amounts of Sn than in the Si nanowires without Sn, and twice as fast as in nanowires that were coated with carbon.« less
  • We report direct observation of an unexpected anisotropic swelling of Si nanowires during lithiation against either a solid electrolyte with a lithium counter-electrode or a liquid electrolyte with a LiCoO2 counter-electrode. Such anisotropic expansion is attributed to the interfacial processes of accommodating large volumetric strains at the lithiation reaction front that depend sensitively on the crystallographic orientation. This anisotropic swelling results in lithiated Si nanowires with a remarkable dumbbell-shaped cross section, which develops due to plastic flow and an ensuing necking instability that is induced by the tensile hoop stress buildup in the lithiated shell. The plasticity-driven morphological instabilities oftenmore » lead to fracture in lithiated nanowires, now captured in video. These results provide important insight into the battery degradation mechanisms.« less