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Title: (DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) Barcoded Aerosols Allow for Simultaneous Releases

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1165778
Report Number(s):
LLNL-CONF-659247
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at: IAC2014, Busan, South Korea, Aug 30 - Sep 03, 2014
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Farquar, G. (DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) Barcoded Aerosols Allow for Simultaneous Releases. United States: N. p., 2014. Web.
Farquar, G. (DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) Barcoded Aerosols Allow for Simultaneous Releases. United States.
Farquar, G. Fri . "(DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) Barcoded Aerosols Allow for Simultaneous Releases". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1165778.
@article{osti_1165778,
title = {(DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) Barcoded Aerosols Allow for Simultaneous Releases},
author = {Farquar, G},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 22 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Fri Aug 22 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • Aerosols are an ever-present part of our daily environment and have extensive effects on both human and environmental health. Particles in the inhalable range (1-10 μm diameter) are of particular concern because their deposition in the lung can lead to a variety of illnesses including allergic reactions, viral or bacterial infections, and cancer. Understanding the transport of inhalable aerosols across both short and long distances is necessary to predict human exposures to aerosols. To assess the transport of hazardous aerosols, surrogate tracer particles are required to measure their transport through occupied spaces. These tracer particles must not only possess similarmore » transport characteristics to those of interest but also be easily distinguished from the background at low levels and survive the environmental conditions of the testing environment. A previously-developed DNA-tagged particle (DNATrax), composed of food-grade sugar and a DNA oligonucleotide as a “barcode” label, shows promise as a new aerosol tracer. Herein, the use of DNATrax material is validated for use in both indoor and outdoor environments. Utilizing passive samplers made of materials commonly found in indoor environments followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for endpoint particle detection, particles detection was achieved up to 90 m from the aerosolization location and across shorter distances with high spatial resolution. The unique DNA label and PCR assay specificity were leveraged to perform multiple simultaneous experiments. This allowed the assessment of experimental reproducibility, a rare occurrence among aerosol field tests. To transition to outdoor testing, the solid material provides some protection of the DNA label when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with 60% of the DNA remaining intact after 60 minutes under a germicidal lamp and the rate of degradation declining with irradiation time. Additionally, exposure of the DNATrax material using formulations of two different food-grade sugars (maltodextrin and erythritol) to humidity as high as 66% had no significant effect on the DNA label’s degradation or the particle’s aerodynamic diameter, confirming particle stability under such conditions. In summary, confirmation of the DNATrax particles’ size and label integrity under variable conditions combined with experiment multiplexing and high resolution sampling provides a powerful experimental design for modeling aerosol transport through occupied indoor and outdoor locations.« less
  • Dispersion from accidental releases encompasses many different aspects. It includes the methods of classical air pollution modeling used in estimating the dispersion of dilute air pollutants, but also encompasses the more complex physics of dense-vapor and high-momentum releases, boiling and evaporating liquids, multiphase flow, vessel blowdown, and aerosol transport. The purpose of this paper is to present a basic description of accidental release problems in the context of a technical narrative. The topics addressed in this primer include a basic introduction in Section 1 and a discussion of turbulence and meteorology in Section 2. In Section 3 the problem ofmore » release rate estimates is covered. Following this, in Section 4, the problem of liquid pool evaporation is covered. Momentum or buoyancy dominates jet releases are covered in Section 5, and the problem of low-momentum heavy-gas releases is covered in Section 6. In Section 7, the problem of passive dispersion, where ambient turbulence dominates the dilution process, is discussed. Section 8 includes discussion of a number of special complications which can arise in a dispersion analysis. Section 9 is a discussion of toxic vapor hazard levels. Section 10 directs the reader to a number of summary references which cover the availability and use of computer models for accidental release air dispersion modeling.« less
  • Results of aerosol release calculations by six groups from six countries are compared with the releases from ACE MCCI Test L6. The codes used for these calculations included: SOLGASMIX-PV, SOLGASMIX Reactor 1986, CORCON.UW, VANESA 1.01, and CORCON mod2.04/VANESA 1.01. Calculations were performed with the standard VANESA 1.01 code and with modifications to the VANESA code such as the inclusion of various zirconium-silica chemical reactions. Comparisons of results from these calculations were made with Test L6 release fractions for U, Zr, Si, the fission-product elements Te, Ba, Sr, Ce, La, Mo and control materials Ag, In, and Ru. Reasonable agreement wasmore » obtained between calculations and Test L6 results for the volatile elements Ag, In and Te. Calculated releases of the low volatility fission products ranged from within an order of magnitude to five orders of magnitude of Test L6 values. Releases were over and underestimated by calculations. Poorest agreements were obtained for Mo and Si.« less