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Title: The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis

Abstract

Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants 1, 2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wallmore » polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are fundamental to sustainable plant productivity.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1165379
Report Number(s):
LBNL-6816E
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Nature
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Martin, F., Aerts, A., Ahren, D., Brun, A., Danchin, E. G. J., Duchaussoy, F., Gibon, J., Kohler, A., Lindquist, E., Peresa, V., Salamov, A., Shapiro, H. J., Wuyts, J., Blaudez, D., Buee, M., Brokstein, P., Canback, B., Cohen, D., Courty, P. E., Coutinho, P. M., Delaruelle, C., Detter, J. C., Deveau, A., DiFazio, S., Duplessis, S., Fraissinet-Tachet, L., Lucic, E., Frey-Klett, P., Fourrey, C., Feussner, I., Gay, G., Grimwood, J., Hoegger, P. J., Jain, P., Kilaru, S., Labbe, J., Lin, Y. C., Legue, V., Le Tacon, F., Marmeisse, R., Melayah, D., Montanini, B., Muratet, M., Nehls, U., Niculita-Hirzel, H., Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le, Peter, M., Quesneville, H., Rajashekar, B., Reich, M., Rouhier, N., Schmutz, J., Yin, T., Chalot, M., Henrissat, B., Kues, U., Lucas, S., Van de Peer, Y., Podila, G. K., Polle, A., Pukkila, P. J., Richardson, P. M., Rouze, P., Sanders, I. R., Stajich, J. E., Tunlid, A., Tuskan, G., and Grigoriev, I. V. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Martin, F., Aerts, A., Ahren, D., Brun, A., Danchin, E. G. J., Duchaussoy, F., Gibon, J., Kohler, A., Lindquist, E., Peresa, V., Salamov, A., Shapiro, H. J., Wuyts, J., Blaudez, D., Buee, M., Brokstein, P., Canback, B., Cohen, D., Courty, P. E., Coutinho, P. M., Delaruelle, C., Detter, J. C., Deveau, A., DiFazio, S., Duplessis, S., Fraissinet-Tachet, L., Lucic, E., Frey-Klett, P., Fourrey, C., Feussner, I., Gay, G., Grimwood, J., Hoegger, P. J., Jain, P., Kilaru, S., Labbe, J., Lin, Y. C., Legue, V., Le Tacon, F., Marmeisse, R., Melayah, D., Montanini, B., Muratet, M., Nehls, U., Niculita-Hirzel, H., Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le, Peter, M., Quesneville, H., Rajashekar, B., Reich, M., Rouhier, N., Schmutz, J., Yin, T., Chalot, M., Henrissat, B., Kues, U., Lucas, S., Van de Peer, Y., Podila, G. K., Polle, A., Pukkila, P. J., Richardson, P. M., Rouze, P., Sanders, I. R., Stajich, J. E., Tunlid, A., Tuskan, G., & Grigoriev, I. V. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis. United States.
Martin, F., Aerts, A., Ahren, D., Brun, A., Danchin, E. G. J., Duchaussoy, F., Gibon, J., Kohler, A., Lindquist, E., Peresa, V., Salamov, A., Shapiro, H. J., Wuyts, J., Blaudez, D., Buee, M., Brokstein, P., Canback, B., Cohen, D., Courty, P. E., Coutinho, P. M., Delaruelle, C., Detter, J. C., Deveau, A., DiFazio, S., Duplessis, S., Fraissinet-Tachet, L., Lucic, E., Frey-Klett, P., Fourrey, C., Feussner, I., Gay, G., Grimwood, J., Hoegger, P. J., Jain, P., Kilaru, S., Labbe, J., Lin, Y. C., Legue, V., Le Tacon, F., Marmeisse, R., Melayah, D., Montanini, B., Muratet, M., Nehls, U., Niculita-Hirzel, H., Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le, Peter, M., Quesneville, H., Rajashekar, B., Reich, M., Rouhier, N., Schmutz, J., Yin, T., Chalot, M., Henrissat, B., Kues, U., Lucas, S., Van de Peer, Y., Podila, G. K., Polle, A., Pukkila, P. J., Richardson, P. M., Rouze, P., Sanders, I. R., Stajich, J. E., Tunlid, A., Tuskan, G., and Grigoriev, I. V. Fri . "The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1165379.
@article{osti_1165379,
title = {The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis},
author = {Martin, F. and Aerts, A. and Ahren, D. and Brun, A. and Danchin, E. G. J. and Duchaussoy, F. and Gibon, J. and Kohler, A. and Lindquist, E. and Peresa, V. and Salamov, A. and Shapiro, H. J. and Wuyts, J. and Blaudez, D. and Buee, M. and Brokstein, P. and Canback, B. and Cohen, D. and Courty, P. E. and Coutinho, P. M. and Delaruelle, C. and Detter, J. C. and Deveau, A. and DiFazio, S. and Duplessis, S. and Fraissinet-Tachet, L. and Lucic, E. and Frey-Klett, P. and Fourrey, C. and Feussner, I. and Gay, G. and Grimwood, J. and Hoegger, P. J. and Jain, P. and Kilaru, S. and Labbe, J. and Lin, Y. C. and Legue, V. and Le Tacon, F. and Marmeisse, R. and Melayah, D. and Montanini, B. and Muratet, M. and Nehls, U. and Niculita-Hirzel, H. and Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le and Peter, M. and Quesneville, H. and Rajashekar, B. and Reich, M. and Rouhier, N. and Schmutz, J. and Yin, T. and Chalot, M. and Henrissat, B. and Kues, U. and Lucas, S. and Van de Peer, Y. and Podila, G. K. and Polle, A. and Pukkila, P. J. and Richardson, P. M. and Rouze, P. and Sanders, I. R. and Stajich, J. E. and Tunlid, A. and Tuskan, G. and Grigoriev, I. V.},
abstractNote = {Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants 1, 2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are fundamental to sustainable plant productivity.},
doi = {},
journal = {Nature},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2007},
month = {8}
}