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Title: Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

Abstract

The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocolmore » does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability
OSTI Identifier:
1164874
Report Number(s):
NREL/SR-7A40-63167
LGJ-1-11965-01
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Related Information: Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; Period of Performance: September 2011-December 2014; Work performed by SBW Consulting, Inc. Bellevue, Washington
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; HVAC; HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING; BUILDING AUTOMATION SYSTEM; COMMERCIAL BUILDING; INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING

Citation Formats

Romberger, J. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.2172/1164874.
Romberger, J. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. United States. doi:10.2172/1164874.
Romberger, J. 2014. "Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol". United States. doi:10.2172/1164874. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1164874.
@article{osti_1164874,
title = {Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol},
author = {Romberger, J.},
abstractNote = {The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.},
doi = {10.2172/1164874},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2014,
month =
}

Technical Report:

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  • The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions.
  • The specific measure described here involves improving the overall efficiency in air-conditioning systems as a whole (compressor, evaporator, condenser, and supply fan). The efficiency rating is expressed as the energy efficiency ratio (EER), seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), and integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER). The higher the EER, SEER or IEER, the more efficient the unit is.
  • This Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol (the protocol) describes methods to account for energy savings resulting from programmatic installation of lighting control equipment in large populations of commercial, industrial, government, institutional, and other nonresidential facilities. This protocol does not address savings resulting from changes in codes and standards, or from education and training activities. When lighting controls are installed in conjunction with a lighting retrofit project, the lighting control savings must be calculated parametrically with the lighting retrofit project so savings are not double counted.
  • Retrocommissioning (RCx) is a systematic process for optimizing energy performance in existing buildings. It specifically focuses on improving the control of energy-using equipment (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment and lighting) and typically does not involve equipment replacement. Field results have shown proper RCx can achieve energy savings ranging from 5% to 20%, with a typical payback of 2 years or less. A study conducted on behalf of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory analyzed data from 11 utilities operating RCx programs across the United States. The dataset included 122 RCx projects and more than 950 RCx measures.
  • This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., datamore » centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).« less