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Title: Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

Abstract

The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesismore » gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could produce transportation fuels and produce pulp at the same time. This has the added advantage of reducing or eliminating the need for a recovery boiler. The recovery boiler is an extremely expensive unit operation in the Kraft process and is key to the chemical recovery system that makes the Kraft process successful. Going to a gasification process with potentially higher energy efficiency, improve the pulping process and be more efficient with the use of wood. At the same time a renewable fuel product can be made. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant progressed with the design of the mill as Chemrec continued to work on their pilot plant data gathering. The design information helped to guide the pilot plant and vice versa. In the end, the design details showed that the process was technically feasible. However, at the relatively small size of this plant the specific capital cost was very high and could only be considered if the pulp operation needed to replace the recovery boiler. Some of the reasons for the costs being high are attributed to the many constraints that needed to be addressed in the pulping process. Additionally, the Methanol product did not have a vehicle fuel supply chain to enter into. A different product selection could have eliminated this issue. However, with the selected design, the installation at Escanaba Paper Mill was not economically feasible and the project was not pursued further.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
Contributing Org.:
Chemrec, Michigan Economic Development Corporation, US/Swedish Bilateral Energy Funding Agreement
OSTI Identifier:
1163294
Report Number(s):
DOE-ESC-18124
DOE Contract Number:  
FG36-08GO18124
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; Cellulosic; Black Liquor; Gasification; DME Fuels; Methanol

Citation Formats

Fornetti, Micheal, and Freeman, Douglas. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.2172/1163294.
Fornetti, Micheal, & Freeman, Douglas. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report. United States. doi:10.2172/1163294.
Fornetti, Micheal, and Freeman, Douglas. Wed . "Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report". United States. doi:10.2172/1163294. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1163294.
@article{osti_1163294,
title = {Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report},
author = {Fornetti, Micheal and Freeman, Douglas},
abstractNote = {The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could produce transportation fuels and produce pulp at the same time. This has the added advantage of reducing or eliminating the need for a recovery boiler. The recovery boiler is an extremely expensive unit operation in the Kraft process and is key to the chemical recovery system that makes the Kraft process successful. Going to a gasification process with potentially higher energy efficiency, improve the pulping process and be more efficient with the use of wood. At the same time a renewable fuel product can be made. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant progressed with the design of the mill as Chemrec continued to work on their pilot plant data gathering. The design information helped to guide the pilot plant and vice versa. In the end, the design details showed that the process was technically feasible. However, at the relatively small size of this plant the specific capital cost was very high and could only be considered if the pulp operation needed to replace the recovery boiler. Some of the reasons for the costs being high are attributed to the many constraints that needed to be addressed in the pulping process. Additionally, the Methanol product did not have a vehicle fuel supply chain to enter into. A different product selection could have eliminated this issue. However, with the selected design, the installation at Escanaba Paper Mill was not economically feasible and the project was not pursued further.},
doi = {10.2172/1163294},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {10}
}