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Title: Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon

Abstract

While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na +, K +, Ca 2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na +, Ca 2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na +, Ca 2+, K +, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantationmore » is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  3. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1158486
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-93651
Journal ID: ISSN 0275-5947; 400403209
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: North American Journal of Fisheries Management; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Analytes; Anesthesia; Cortisol; MS-222; Stress; Surgical Implantation

Citation Formats

Wagner, Katie A., Woodley, Christa M., Seaburg, Adam, Skalski, John R., and Eppard, Matthew B.. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1080/02755947.2014.926303.
Wagner, Katie A., Woodley, Christa M., Seaburg, Adam, Skalski, John R., & Eppard, Matthew B.. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon. United States. doi:10.1080/02755947.2014.926303.
Wagner, Katie A., Woodley, Christa M., Seaburg, Adam, Skalski, John R., and Eppard, Matthew B.. Thu . "Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon". United States. doi:10.1080/02755947.2014.926303.
@article{osti_1158486,
title = {Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon},
author = {Wagner, Katie A. and Woodley, Christa M. and Seaburg, Adam and Skalski, John R. and Eppard, Matthew B.},
abstractNote = {While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na+, K+, Ca2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na+, Ca2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na+, Ca2+, K+, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantation is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.},
doi = {10.1080/02755947.2014.926303},
journal = {North American Journal of Fisheries Management},
number = 4,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jul 17 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Thu Jul 17 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitters is still the key limiting factor despite that considerable effort has been expended to understand the biological effects of implantation of acoustic transmitters in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first active acoustic tag that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. It also lasts more than four times longer than the commercially-available transmitters. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectablemore » transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the other commercially-available transmitters tested. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable tag had a higher survival probability from release to each of 11 downstream detection arrays than concurrent releases of fish surgically implanted with commercially-available tags. In addition, reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The differences in survival may have been caused by warm water temperatures and higher rates of infection experienced by the surgically implanted group due to the presence of sutures acting as an attachment site for pathogens. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has further reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. As a result, the information gathered with this new technology is helping minimize the impact of dams on fish, leading to more environmentally sustainable energy systems.« less
  • Abstract.—The influence of a surgically implanted acoustic micro-transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag on the growth and survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon was examined. Growth and survival were compared between treatment (implanted) and control fish within three fork length (FL) size groups (80-89, 90-99, and 100-109 mm). The acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag implanted in our study had a combined weight of 0.74 g. Weights of study fish ranged from 4.7 to 16.3 g for treatment fish and from 5.1 to 16.8 g for control fish. The burden for the combined acoustic and PIT tag experienced by implantedmore » fish ranged from 8.8% to 15.7% for the 80-89 mm FL group, 6.0-10.9% for the 90-99 mm FL group, and 4.5-8.6% for the 100-109 mm FL group. Results indicated that growth and survival were size-dependent among implanted juvenile Chinook salmon. Significant differences in growth rate and survival were observed between treatment and control fish in the 80-89 mm FL group. Within this group, growth of fish smaller than 88.5 mm FL (tag burden > 10.0%) was negatively affected by the implantation or presence of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag. Survival of fish in the 90-99 mm FL group did not differ between treatment and control fish. However, survival of implanted fish within this size group that were smaller than 97.2 mm FL (tag burden > 7.4%) was negatively influenced. These results indicate that the burden of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag should be maintained at or below about 7.0% for studies that use hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon.« less
  • The miniaturization of acoustic transmitters may allow greater flexibility in terms of the size and species of fish available to tag. New downsized injectable acoustic tags similar in shape to passive integrated transponder tags can be rapidly injected rather than surgically implanted through a sutured incision, as is current practice. Before wide-scale field use of these injectable transmitters, standard protocols to ensure the most effective and least damaging methods of implantation must be developed. Three implantation methods were tested in various sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha. Methods included a needle bevel-down injection, a needle bevel-up injection with amore » 90-degree rotation, and tag implantation through an unsutured incision. Tagged fish were compared to untagged control groups. Weight and wound area were measured at tagging and every week for 3 weeks; holding tanks were checked daily for mortalities and tag losses. No differences among treatments were found in growth, tag loss, or survival, but wound area was significantly reduced among incision-treated fish. The bevel-up injection had the worst results in terms of tag loss and wound area and also had high mortality. Implantation through an incision resulted in the lowest tag loss but the highest mortality. Fish from the bevel-down treatment group had the least mortality; wound areas also were smaller than the bevel-up treatment group. Cumulatively, the data suggest that the unsutured incision and bevel-down injection methods were the most effective; the drawbacks of both methods are described in detail. However, we further recommend larger and longer studies to find more robust thresholds for tagging size that include more sensitive measures.« less
  • Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in Puget Sound, Washington, for 2 consecutive years from contaminated urban estuaries, a nonurban estuary, and from the respective hatcheries to assess exposure to anthropogenic chemicals and to determine if biochemical changes were occurring as a consequence of exposure. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated hydrocarbons, and butyltins was determined. The mean concentrations of PAHs and PCBs in stomach contents and PCBs in liver were significantly higher in salmon from the urban estuaries compared to fish from the nonurban estuary in both sampling years. Higher hepatic concentrations of PCBs than DDTs weremore » found in fish from the urban estuaries, but butyltins were rarely detected. Further, mean concentrations of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, an estimate of exposure to PAHs, and hepatic cytochrome P4501A and levels of hepatic DNA adducts were also significantly higher in salmon from the urban estuaries compared to either the nonurban estuary or the hatcheries. Results demonstrated increased exposure to chemical contaminants in outmigrant juvenile salmon during their relatively brief residence in urban estuaries of Puget Sound. Moreover, the exposure was sufficient to elicit biochemical responses, which suggest a potential for other biological effects to ensue.« less
  • Controlled laboratory challenges with pathogenic Listonella (formerly Vibrio) anguillarum bacteria were used to examine potential effects of dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the growth and immunocompetence of juvenile Puget Sound (WA, USA) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha). Salmon were fed four levels of the PCB congener mixture Aroclort 1254 for 28 d to bracket likely exposure to PCBs in the lower Duwamish waterway near Seattle, Washington, USA. Fish were transferred to five replicate tanks per dose, exposed to L. anguillarum, and monitored for 14 d. Half the PCB-dosed fish were vaccinated against L. anguillarum, and specific immunity was allowedmore » to develop in this group for three weeks prior to challenge. All mortalities following challenge were individually sampled for bacteria to identify the cause of death. The data indicate that dietary PCB exposure, even at relatively high levels, did not have a significant effect on growth, innate disease resistance, or acquired immunity to L. anguillarum. The controlled laboratory experiments in this study suggest that the immune system of Chinook salmon is not sensitive to orally delivered PCBs at environmentally relevant concentrations.« less