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Title: Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.

Abstract

The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as themore » more meaningful pressure time histories.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1156598
Report Number(s):
SAND2014-17359
537254
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Chavez, Marcus Alexander, Willis, Michael David, and Covert, Timothy Todd. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.2172/1156598.
Chavez, Marcus Alexander, Willis, Michael David, & Covert, Timothy Todd. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.. United States. doi:10.2172/1156598.
Chavez, Marcus Alexander, Willis, Michael David, and Covert, Timothy Todd. Mon . "Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.". United States. doi:10.2172/1156598. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1156598.
@article{osti_1156598,
title = {Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.},
author = {Chavez, Marcus Alexander and Willis, Michael David and Covert, Timothy Todd},
abstractNote = {The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as the more meaningful pressure time histories.},
doi = {10.2172/1156598},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The detailed history of the shock/detonation wave propagation after crossing a room-temperature-room-pressure (RTP) air gap between a 25.4 mm diameter LX-17 donor column and a 25.4 mm diameter by 25.4 mm long LX-17 acceptor pellet is investigated for three different gap widths (3.07, 2.08, and 0.00 mm) using the Embedded Fiber Optic (EFO) technique. The 2.08 mm gap propagated and the 3.07 mm gap failed and this can be seen clearly and unambiguously in the EFO data even though the 25.4 mm-long acceptor pellet would be considered quite short for a determination by more traditional means such as pins.
  • This paper presents the results of experiments to measure the internal strains and temperatures that are generated in graphite/epoxy composite specimens during processing using embedded fiber optic strain sensors and thermocouples. Measurements of strain and temperature, combined with a computational model, offer the potential for non-destructive, real-time determination of residual stress in composites, and may be useful for process monitoring and control. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer, Bragg grating strain sensors, and thermocouples were embedded in graphite/epoxy composite laminates prior to cure. The specimens were cured in a press, and the internal strains and temperatures developed during processing were monitored and recorded.more » The results are compared with expected values, and limitations of the experimental technique are discussed.« less
  • VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a specialized Doppler interferometer system that is gaining world-wide acceptance as the standard for shock phenomena analysis. The VISAR`s large power and cooling requirements, and the sensitive and complex nature of the interferometer cavity has restricted the traditional system to the laboratory. This paper describes the new portable VISAR, its peripheral sensors, and the role it played in optically measuring ground shock of an underground nuclear detonation (UGT). The Solid State VISAR uses a prototype diode pumped Nd:YAG laser and solid state detectors that provide a suitcase-size system with low power requirements.more » A special window and sensors was developed for fiber optic coupling (1 kilometer long) to the VISCAR. The system has proven itself as reliable, easy to use instrument that is capable of field test use and rapid data reduction using only a notebook personal computer (PC).« less