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Title: Electrochemical Stimulation of Microbial Perchlorate Reduction

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Science&Technology; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 5
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

J. Cameron,Thrash, J. Ian,Van Trump, Karrie A.,Weber, Elisabeth,Miller, Laurie A.,Achenbach, and John D.,Coates. Electrochemical Stimulation of Microbial Perchlorate Reduction. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1021/es062772m.
J. Cameron,Thrash, J. Ian,Van Trump, Karrie A.,Weber, Elisabeth,Miller, Laurie A.,Achenbach, & John D.,Coates. Electrochemical Stimulation of Microbial Perchlorate Reduction. United States. doi:10.1021/es062772m.
J. Cameron,Thrash, J. Ian,Van Trump, Karrie A.,Weber, Elisabeth,Miller, Laurie A.,Achenbach, and John D.,Coates. Thu . "Electrochemical Stimulation of Microbial Perchlorate Reduction". United States. doi:10.1021/es062772m.
title = {Electrochemical Stimulation of Microbial Perchlorate Reduction},
author = {J. Cameron,Thrash and J. Ian,Van Trump and Karrie A.,Weber and Elisabeth,Miller and Laurie A.,Achenbach and John D.,Coates},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1021/es062772m},
journal = {Environmental Science&Technology},
number = 5,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
  • Perchlorate has been widely used as a propellant in solid rocket fuel, and has recently been identified as a contaminant in both groundwater and surface waters. Perchlorate is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as a potential health risk, and the State of California has set a drinking water action level of 18 {micro}g L{sup {minus}1}. Incidents of groundwater contamination have been associated with industrial sites in California and Nevada that have been involved in the manufacturing or testing of solid rocket propellants. Microorganisms have been shown to be capable of reducing perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) to chloridemore » (Cl{sup {minus}}) and oxygen, thus transforming perchlorate into innocuous end-products. Bioreactor processes for the remediation of perchlorate contaminated wastewater have previously been established. However, these systems were optimized for perchlorate concentrations in the grams per liter range, while groundwater contamination can be a million-fold lower but still exceed the water quality action level. This literature review will focus on microbial-mediated perchlorate reduction, and discuss issues of importance to the remediation of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater.« less
  • The electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} in tetraethylammonium perchlorate + methanol electrolyte was investigated with a copper wire electrode at an extremely low temperature ({minus}30 C). The main products from CO{sub 2} by the electrochemical reduction were methane, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and formic acid. Under the optimum experimental conditions, 28.1% faradaic efficiency methane, 7.2% ethylene, 67.8% carbon monoxide, and 23.2% formic acid were produced from CO{sub 2} by the electrochemical reduction. The maximum partial current densities for CO{sub 2} reduction and hydrocarbons were 4.5 and 1.6 mA/cm{sup 2} at {minus}4.0 V vs SCE, respectively. At {minus}30 C, the efficiency ofmore » hydrogen formation, being a competitive reaction against CO{sub 2} reduction, was suppressed to less than 10.1%.« less
  • We have developed a method to remove perchlorate (14 to 27 {micro}g/L) and nitrate (48 mg/L) from contaminated groundwater using a wetland bioreactor. The bioreactor has operated continuously in a remote field location for more than two years with a stable ecosystem of indigenous organisms. This study assesses the bioreactor for long-term perchlorate and nitrate remediation by evaluating influent and effluent groundwater for reduction-oxidation conditions and nitrate and perchlorate concentrations. Total community DNA was extracted and purified from 10-g sediment samples retrieved from vertical coring of the bioreactor during winter. Analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of short, 16S rDNA,more » polymerase-chain-reaction products was used to identify dominant microorganisms. Bacteria genera identified were closely affiliated with bacteria widely distributed in soils, mud layers, and fresh water. Of the 17 dominant bands sequenced, most were gram negative and capable of aerobic or anaerobic respiration with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Halomonas, and Nitrospira). Several identified genera (Rhizobium, Acinetobactor, and Xanthomonas) are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a combined form (ammonia) usable by host plants. Isolates were identified from the Proteobacteria class, known for the ability to reduce perchlorate. Initial bacterial assessments of sediments confirm the prevalence of facultative anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing perchlorate and nitrate in situ.« less