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Title: Experimental Observation of the Drift-Shadow Effect using X-Ray Absorption Imaging.

Abstract

Abstract not provided.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1148477
Report Number(s):
SAND2007-2673J
523535
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Hydrology; Related Information: Proposed for publication in Journal of Hydrology.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Altman, Susan J., Ho, Clifford K., and Forsberg, Aleeca A. Experimental Observation of the Drift-Shadow Effect using X-Ray Absorption Imaging.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Altman, Susan J., Ho, Clifford K., & Forsberg, Aleeca A. Experimental Observation of the Drift-Shadow Effect using X-Ray Absorption Imaging.. United States.
Altman, Susan J., Ho, Clifford K., and Forsberg, Aleeca A. Sun . "Experimental Observation of the Drift-Shadow Effect using X-Ray Absorption Imaging.". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1148477,
title = {Experimental Observation of the Drift-Shadow Effect using X-Ray Absorption Imaging.},
author = {Altman, Susan J. and Ho, Clifford K. and Forsberg, Aleeca A.},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of Hydrology},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • No abstract prepared.
  • X-ray absorption imaging experiments and measurements of inflow and outflow distribution provide quantitative and vistial evidence for capillary diversion around a drift and a drift-shadow effect. Test cells were constructed from volcanic tuff with either in-plane (one fracture parallel to the face of the test cell) or multi-fracture (with a grid of fractures perpendicular to the test cell) systems. Tracer solutions were dripped in the fractures at ports along the top of the test cell. Discharge along the bottom boundary and in the drift was monitored. Variables included flow rate and fracture aperture. X-ray absorption imaging allowed for visualization ofmore » flow paths through the system. Evidence for capillary diversion and drift shadow include: (1) very small (< 1 %,of inflow in most cases) measured discharge into the drift, (2) discharge less than expected under the drift and discharge greater than expected just beyond the drift, and (3) visualization of the tracer-solution flow path from above the drift, around the drift, and shedding beyond the drift. However, tracer was also observed in a natural fracture under the drift in one system. It is unclear whether these high concentrations are due to diversion around the drift and back under the drift or capillary spreading along the bottom boundary of the test cell. Future experiments will focus on using samples collected directly from Yucca Mountain and minimizing the capillary barrier effects along the lower boundary of the test cells. The implementation of the drift shadow effect, as supported by these experiments, could impact performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository.« less
  • The experimental observation of the depression effect in gas devices designed for X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) is reported. The measurements were carried out at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a two-bunch FEL beam at 6.5 keV with 122.5 ns separation passing through an argon gas cell. The relative intensities of the two pulses of the two-bunch beam were measured, after and before the gas cell, from X-ray scattering off thin targets by using fast diodes with sufficient temporal resolution. At a cell pressure of 140 hPa, it was found that the after-to-before ratio of the intensities of the secondmore » pulse was about 17% ± 6% higher than that of the first pulse, revealing lower effective attenuation of the gas cell due to heating by the first pulse and subsequent gas density reduction in the beam path. Furthermore, this measurement is important in guiding the design and/or mitigating the adverse effects in gas devices for high-repetition-rate FELs such as the LCLS-II and the European XFEL or other future high-repetition-rate upgrades to existing FEL facilities.« less
  • The experimental observation of the depression effect in gas devices designed for X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) is reported. The measurements were carried out at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a two-bunch FEL beam at 6.5 keV with 122.5 ns separation passing through an argon gas cell. The relative intensities of the two pulses of the two-bunch beam were measured, after and before the gas cell, from X-ray scattering off thin targets by using fast diodes with sufficient temporal resolution. At a cell pressure of 140 hPa, it was found that the after-to-before ratio of the intensities of the secondmore » pulse was about 17% ± 6% higher than that of the first pulse, revealing lower effective attenuation of the gas cell due to heating by the first pulse and subsequent gas density reduction in the beam path. Furthermore, this measurement is important in guiding the design and/or mitigating the adverse effects in gas devices for high-repetition-rate FELs such as the LCLS-II and the European XFEL or other future high-repetition-rate upgrades to existing FEL facilities.« less