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Title: Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships

Abstract

We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40°N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1130686
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-100079
KP1703020
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Pollution, 182:324-334
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations; northeastern Asia

Citation Formats

Inomata, Yayoi, Kajino, Mizuo, Sato, Keiichi, Ohara, Toshimasa, Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi, Ueda, Hiromasa, Tang, Ning, Hayakawa, Kazuichi, Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi, and Akimoto, Hajime. Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.020.
Inomata, Yayoi, Kajino, Mizuo, Sato, Keiichi, Ohara, Toshimasa, Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi, Ueda, Hiromasa, Tang, Ning, Hayakawa, Kazuichi, Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi, & Akimoto, Hajime. Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships. United States. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.020.
Inomata, Yayoi, Kajino, Mizuo, Sato, Keiichi, Ohara, Toshimasa, Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi, Ueda, Hiromasa, Tang, Ning, Hayakawa, Kazuichi, Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi, and Akimoto, Hajime. Fri . "Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships". United States. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.020.
@article{osti_1130686,
title = {Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships},
author = {Inomata, Yayoi and Kajino, Mizuo and Sato, Keiichi and Ohara, Toshimasa and Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi and Ueda, Hiromasa and Tang, Ning and Hayakawa, Kazuichi and Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi and Akimoto, Hajime},
abstractNote = {We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40°N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.},
doi = {10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.020},
journal = {Environmental Pollution, 182:324-334},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Fri Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • Particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were investigated at six sampling sites in the heating (February to March 2001) and nonheating (August to September 2001) periods in an industrial city in Northern China. Thirteen PAHs were measured. The total average concentrations (nanograms per meter cubed) of PAHs ranged between 78.93 and 214.63 during the heating period and from 31.48 to 102.26 in the nonheating period. Benzo(a)pyrene occurred at the highest level at a site near an industrial area but occurred at low concentrations far from the city center and industrial areas. In addition, ambient PAH profiles were studied. The fivemore » and six-ring species occurred in high fractions at the sampling site. By diagnostic ratio analysis, the major source at each sampling site in the city was coal combustion in the heating period; in the nonheating period, the major sources were relatively complex. Finally, the similarities among the six regions were assessed by principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and coefficient of divergence. These multivariate statistical analyses produced similar results, which agreed with the results from the diagnostic ratio analysis. 47 refs. 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less
  • The temporal trend of the particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) level was observed at Gosan, a background site in Korea, for 4 years between November 2001 and January 2004. The total average concentration of ambient particulate PAH compounds was 3.65 +/- 4.74 ng m{sup -3}, which was mainly affected by a rather small number of very high PAH level samples. The PAH level at Gosan was 1 or 2 orders higher than those at other remote sites and 1 or 2 orders lower than those in urban areas in northeast Asia. The particulate PAH concentrations were high during cold periodsmore » mainly because of the seasonal variation of fossil fuel usage amount in northeast Asia. When the PAH levels were high, the ratio of BeP-to-BaP was also high, which is an indicator of particle residence time in the air. On the basis of the backward trajectory and upper wind direction analyses, it was observed that when air parcels were from China, the PAH levels were high. Also, the compositions of PAH compound ratios were similar to those in Beijing in winter. These indicate influence of emissions from China, especially from coal combustion and long-range transport. The relationship between the concentrations of PAHs and non-sea-salt-(nss)-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was generally good when the PAH levels were high. However, the periods of peaks were different, implying different emission patterns.« less
  • The partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between the particulate and gaseous phases resulting from the combustion of polystyrene was studied. A vertical tubular flow furnace was used to incinerate polystyrene spheres at different combustion temperatures to determine the effect of temperature and polystyrene feed size on the particulate and gaseous emissions and their chemical composition. The furnace reactor exhaust was sampled using real-time instruments (differential mobility particle sizer and/or optical particle counter) to determine the particle size distribution. For chemical composition analyses, the particles were either collected on Teflon filters or split into eight size fractions using a cascademore » impactor with filter media substrates, while the gaseous products were collected on XAD-2 adsorbent. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was used to identify and quantify the specific PAH species, their partitioning between the gas and particulate phases, and their distribution as a function of emission particle size. The total mass and number of PAH species in both the particulate and gas phases were found to decrease with increasing incineration temperature and decreasing polystyrene feed size, while the mean diameter of the particles increases with increasing incineration temperature and decreasing feed size. In addition, the PAH species in the particulate phase were found to be concentrated in the smaller aerosol sizes.« less
  • Consumption of soy diets has been found to reduce cancer incidence in animals and is associated with reduced cancer risk in humans. Previously, we have demonstrated that female Sprague-Dawley rats fed purified AIN-93G diets with soy protein isolate (SPI) as the sole protein source had reduced CYP1A1 induction and basal aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) levels relative to those fed the same diet containing casein (CAS). In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying reduced AhR expression have been studied. The SPI-effect on AhR was not observed after feeding diets containing the purified soy isoflavones genistein or daidzein. Rat hepatoma FGC-4more » cells were treated with the serum obtained from rats fed CAS- or SPI-containing diets. Reduced AhR levels (P < 0.05) were observed after 24 h exposure to SPI-serum without any changes in the overall expression of chaperone proteins-HSP90 and XAP2. SPI-serum-stimulated AhR degradation was inhibited by treating the cells with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, and was observed to be preceded by ubiquitination of the receptor. A reduced association of XAP2 with the immunoprecipitated AhR complex was observed. SPI-serum-mediated AhR degradation was preceded by nuclear translocation of the receptor. However, the translocated receptor was found to be unable to heterodimerize with ARNT or to bind to XRE elements on the CYP1A1 enhancer. These data suggest that feeding SPI-containing diets antagonizes AhR signaling by a novel mechanism which differs from those established for known AhR antagonists.« less
  • Petroleum-derived compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment. Recent studies using the zebrafish experimental model have shown that PAHs are toxic to the embryonic cardiovascular system, and that the severity and nature of this developmental cardiotoxicity varies by individual PAH. In the present study we characterize the toxicity of the relatively higher molecular weight 5-ring PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF). While all three compounds target the cardiovascular system, the underlying role of the ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and the tissue-specific induction of the cytochrome p450 metabolic pathway (CYP1A) weremore » distinct for each. BaP exposure (40 {mu}M) produced AHR2-dependent bradycardia, pericardial edema, and myocardial CYP1A immunofluorescence. By contrast, BkF exposure (4-40 {mu}M) caused more severe pericardial edema, looping defects, and erythrocyte regurgitation through the atrioventricular valve that were AHR2-independent (i.e., absent myocardial or endocardial CYP1A induction). Lastly, exposure to BeP (40 {mu}M) yielded a low level of CYP1A+ signal in the vascular endothelium of the head and trunk, without evident toxic effects on cardiac function or morphogenesis. Combined with earlier work on 3- and 4-ring PAHs, our findings provide a more complete picture of how individual PAHs may drive the cardiotoxicity of mixtures in which they predominate. This will improve toxic injury assessments and risk assessments for wild fish populations that spawn in habitats altered by overlapping petroleum-related human impacts such as oil spills, urban stormwater runoff, or sediments contaminated by legacy industrial activities. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAH compounds with 5 rings in different arrangements caused differential tissue-specific patterns of CYP1A induction in zebrafish embryos. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds produced differential cardiac developmental toxicity that did not strictly correlate with associated CYP1A induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene was partially dependent on the AHR2 isoform, while benzo(k)fluoranthene cardiotoxicity was not. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Individual PAH compounds have distinct toxicokinetic pathways in fish embryos, and act through different toxic mechanisms.« less