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Title: Na[subscript 3]Ti[subscript 2](PO[subscript 4])[subscript 3] as a sodium-bearing anode for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. (MIT)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
OTHERDOE - BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES
OSTI Identifier:
1130608
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Electrochem. Commun.; Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 07, 2014
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH

Citation Formats

Li, Zheng, Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B., Xiang, Kai, and Chiang, Yet-Ming. Na[subscript 3]Ti[subscript 2](PO[subscript 4])[subscript 3] as a sodium-bearing anode for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2014.04.003.
Li, Zheng, Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B., Xiang, Kai, & Chiang, Yet-Ming. Na[subscript 3]Ti[subscript 2](PO[subscript 4])[subscript 3] as a sodium-bearing anode for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries. United States. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2014.04.003.
Li, Zheng, Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B., Xiang, Kai, and Chiang, Yet-Ming. Fri . "Na[subscript 3]Ti[subscript 2](PO[subscript 4])[subscript 3] as a sodium-bearing anode for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries". United States. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2014.04.003.
@article{osti_1130608,
title = {Na[subscript 3]Ti[subscript 2](PO[subscript 4])[subscript 3] as a sodium-bearing anode for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries},
author = {Li, Zheng and Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B. and Xiang, Kai and Chiang, Yet-Ming},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.elecom.2014.04.003},
journal = {Electrochem. Commun.},
number = 07, 2014,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jul 11 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Fri Jul 11 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) synthesized as fine carbon-coated powders is demonstrated for the first time to be a suitable sodium-bearing anode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries (ANaBs). Importantly, Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) is found to be stable in deoxygenated water, enabling use of this material in aqueous systems. As a sodiated anode, it allows use of sodium-depleted cathode materials that require supply of sodium-ions from the anode. As an example, we demonstrate for the first time the use of olivine FePO4 as a cathode in an ANaB. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kapundaite, ideally (Na,Ca){sub 2}Fe{sub 4}{sup 3+}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, is a new mineral (IMA2009-047) from Toms phosphate quarry, Kapunda, South Australia, Australia. The new mineral occurs as cavernous aggregates of fibers up to several centimeters across, associated with leucophosphite, natrodufrenite, and meurigite-Na crystals and amorphous brown, black, and/or greenish coatings. Individual kapundaite crystals are very thin flattened fibers up to a few millimeters in length, but typically no more than a few micrometers in thickness. The main form observed is {l_brace}100{r_brace}; other forms in the [010] zone are present, but cannot be measured. Crystals of kapundaite are pale tomore » golden yellow, transparent to translucent, have a yellow streak and silky luster, and are non-fluorescent. Mohs hardness is estimated to be about 3; no twinning or cleavage was observed. Kapundaite is biaxial (+), with indices of refraction = 1.717(3), {beta} = 1.737(3), and {gamma} = 1.790(3). 2V could not be measured; 2V{sub calc} is 64.7{sup o}. The optical orientation is Z = b, Y {approx} c with weak pleochroism: X = nearly colorless, Y = light brown, Z = pale brown; absorption: Y > Z > X. No dispersion was observed. The empirical chemical formula (mean of seven electron microprobe analyses) calculated on the basis of 24 O is (Ca{sub 1.13}Na{sub 0.95}){sub {Sigma}2.08}(Fe{sub 3.83}{sup 3+}Mn{sub 0.03}Al{sub 0.02}Mg{sub 0.01}){sub {Sigma}3.89}P{sub 3.92}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2.11}O. Kapundaite is triclinic, space group P{sub {bar 1}}, a = 6.317(5), b = 7.698(6), c = 9.768(7) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 105.53(1){sup o}, {beta} = 99.24(2){sup o}, {gamma} = 90.09(2){sup o}, V = 451.2(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 1. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs} in {angstrom} (I) (hkl)]: 9.338 (100) (001), 2.753 (64) (2{sub {bar 1}}1), 5.173 (52) (011), 2.417 (48) ({sub {ovr 21}}3, 202, 0{sub {bar 1}}4), and 3.828 (45) (0{sub {bar 2}}1). The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data using synchrotron radiation and refined to R{sub 1} = 0.1382 on the basis of 816 unique reflections with F{sub o} > 4{sub {sigma}}F. The structure of kapundaite is based on a unique corrugated octahedral-tetrahedral sheet, which is composed of two types of chains parallel to a. Kapundaite is structurally related to melonjosephite. The mineral is named for the nearest town to the quarry.« less
  • Na 3V 2-xMg x(PO 4) 3/C composites with different Mg 2+ doping contents (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1) were prepared by a facile sol-gel method. The doping effects on the crystal structure were investigated by XRD, XPS and EXAFS. The results show that low dose doping Mg 2+ does not alter the structure of the material, and magnesium is successfully substituted for vanadium site. The Mg doped Na 3V 2-xMg x(PO 4) 3/C composites exhibit significant improvements on the electrochemistry performances in terms of the rate capability and cycle performance, especially for the Na 3V 1.95Mg 0.05(PO 4)more » 3/C. For example, when the current density increased from 1 C to 30 C, the specific capacity only decreased from 112.5 mAh g-1 to 94.2 mAh g -1 showing very good rate capability. Moreover, even cycling at a high rate of 20 C, an excellent capacity retention of 81% is maintained from the initial value of 106.4 mAh g-1 to 86.2 mAh g-1 at the 50th cycle. Enhanced rate capability and cycle performance can be attributed to the optimized particle size, structural stability and enhanced ionic and electronic conductivity induced by Mg doping.« less