skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Structure of the Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 Kinase Domain Reveals a Second Ligand Binding Pocket Required for Acute Virulence

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. (MIT)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
NIHOTHER U.S. STATES
OSTI Identifier:
1110426
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. Biol. Chem.; Journal Volume: 288; Journal Issue: (48) ; 11, 2013
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH

Citation Formats

Lim, Daniel, Gold, Daniel A., Julien, Lindsay, Rosowski, Emily E., Niedelman, Wendy, Yaffe, Michael B., and Saeij, Jeroen P.J. Structure of the Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 Kinase Domain Reveals a Second Ligand Binding Pocket Required for Acute Virulence. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.523266.
Lim, Daniel, Gold, Daniel A., Julien, Lindsay, Rosowski, Emily E., Niedelman, Wendy, Yaffe, Michael B., & Saeij, Jeroen P.J. Structure of the Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 Kinase Domain Reveals a Second Ligand Binding Pocket Required for Acute Virulence. United States. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.523266.
Lim, Daniel, Gold, Daniel A., Julien, Lindsay, Rosowski, Emily E., Niedelman, Wendy, Yaffe, Michael B., and Saeij, Jeroen P.J. Thu . "Structure of the Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 Kinase Domain Reveals a Second Ligand Binding Pocket Required for Acute Virulence". United States. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.523266.
@article{osti_1110426,
title = {Structure of the Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 Kinase Domain Reveals a Second Ligand Binding Pocket Required for Acute Virulence},
author = {Lim, Daniel and Gold, Daniel A. and Julien, Lindsay and Rosowski, Emily E. and Niedelman, Wendy and Yaffe, Michael B. and Saeij, Jeroen P.J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1074/jbc.M113.523266},
journal = {J. Biol. Chem.},
number = (48) ; 11, 2013,
volume = 288,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 05 00:00:00 EST 2013},
month = {Thu Dec 05 00:00:00 EST 2013}
}
  • Profilins promote actin polymerization by exchanging ADP for ATP on monomeric actin and delivering ATP-actin to growing filament barbed ends. Apicomplexan protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii invade host cells using an actin-dependent gliding motility. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 11 generates an innate immune response upon sensing T. gondii profilin (TgPRF). The crystal structure of TgPRF reveals a parasite-specific surface motif consisting of an acidic loop, followed by a long {beta}-hairpin. A series of structure-based profilin mutants show that TLR11 recognition of the acidic loop is responsible for most of the interleukin (IL)-12 secretion response to TgPRF in peritoneal macrophages. Deletion ofmore » both the acidic loop and the {beta}-hairpin completely abrogates IL-12 secretion. Insertion of the T. gondii acidic loop and {beta}-hairpin into yeast profilin is sufficient to generate TLR11-dependent signaling. Substitution of the acidic loop in TgPRF with the homologous loop from the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum does not affect TLR11-dependent IL-12 secretion, while substitution with the acidic loop from Plasmodium falciparum results in reduced but significant IL-12 secretion. We conclude that the parasite-specific motif in TgPRF is the key molecular pattern recognized by TLR11. Unlike other profilins, TgPRF slows nucleotide exchange on monomeric rabbit actin and binds rabbit actin weakly. The putative TgPRF actin-binding surface includes the {beta}-hairpin and diverges widely from the actin-binding surfaces of vertebrate profilins.« less
  • The second crystal structure of a parasite protein preferentially enriched in the brain cyst of T. gondii has been solved at 2.75 Å resolution. Bradyzoite enolase 1 is reported to have differential functions as a glycolytic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator in bradyzoites. In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2)more » in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein in Toxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops. The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts.« less
  • In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2) in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein inToxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops.more » The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated n vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Lastly, enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts.« less
  • Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population. We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain inmore » the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers. We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two {alpha}-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.« less