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Title: Linking Humans and Systems in Nuclear Power

Abstract

Traditional engineering methods do not make provision for the integration of human considerations, while traditional human factors methods do not scale well to the complexity of large-scale nuclear power plant projects. Although the need for up-to-date human factors engineering processes and tools is recognised widely in industry, so far no formal guidance has been developed. This article proposes such a framework.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Laboratory (INL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1108042
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-13-30714
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nuclear Engineering International
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS; human factors engineering; operation and safety

Citation Formats

Jacques Hugo. Linking Humans and Systems in Nuclear Power. United States: N. p., 2013. Web.
Jacques Hugo. Linking Humans and Systems in Nuclear Power. United States.
Jacques Hugo. 2013. "Linking Humans and Systems in Nuclear Power". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1108042,
title = {Linking Humans and Systems in Nuclear Power},
author = {Jacques Hugo},
abstractNote = {Traditional engineering methods do not make provision for the integration of human considerations, while traditional human factors methods do not scale well to the complexity of large-scale nuclear power plant projects. Although the need for up-to-date human factors engineering processes and tools is recognised widely in industry, so far no formal guidance has been developed. This article proposes such a framework.},
doi = {},
journal = {Nuclear Engineering International},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2013,
month = 2
}
  • The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhancedmore » approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic *sipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host's biosignatures to each infectious condition. Through this DBN computational approach, the method identified significantly perturbed pathways and GO category groups of genes that define the pathogenicity signatures of the infectious agent. Our preliminary results provide deeper understanding of the overall complexity of host innate immune response as well as the identification of host gene perturbations that defines a unique host temporal biosignature response to each pathogen. The application of advanced computational methods for developing interactome models based on DBNs has proven to be instrumental in elucidating novel host responses and improved functional biological insight into the host defensive mechanisms. Evaluating the unique differences in pathway and GO perturbations across pathogen conditions allowed the identification of plausible host pathogen interaction mechanisms. Accordingly, a systems biology approach to study molecular pathway gene expression profiles of host cellular responses to microbial pathogens holds great promise as a methodology to identify, model and predict the overall dynamics of the host pathogen interactome. Thus, we propose that such an approach has immediate application to the rational design of brucellosis and salmonellosis vaccines.« less