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Title: Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

Abstract

There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1096524
Report Number(s):
13-OEWH-0881
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; atomic bomb; atomic bomb survivors; fallout; radiation effects

Citation Formats

None. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.2172/1096524.
None. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies. United States. doi:10.2172/1096524.
None. Thu . "Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies". United States. doi:10.2172/1096524. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1096524.
@article{osti_1096524,
title = {Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies},
author = {None},
abstractNote = {There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.},
doi = {10.2172/1096524},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 06 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Thu Jun 06 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}

Technical Report:

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  • This document contains 2 reports. In the first report a study has been made of the outcome of pregnancy in women who were pregnant at the time of the atomic bomb explosions in Nagasaki. Among 30 mothers with one or more major signs of radiation, i.e., epilation, oropharyngeal lesions, purpura, or petechiae, who were within 2000 meters of the hypocenter, there were 7 fetal deaths (23.4%), 6 neonatal and infant deaths (26%), and 4 instances of mental retardation among 16 surviving children (25%). The overall morbidity and mortality is approximately 60% in this group of mothers. This is in sharpmore » contrast to the group of mothers without major signs but within 2000 meters, where the overall mortality was only 10%, and in the control group, where it was about 6%. In the second and third trimesters there is a significantly greater fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality among the mothers with major signs when compared to the mothers without major signs or the control group. The mean height and head circumference of children born to mothers with major signs was significantly smaller than in those children born to mothers in the control group. In the second report, the effects of radiation exposure on the progeny of biologically related parents are discussed. The concepts and particularly the technics of modern epidemiology are surprisingly similar to those which the geneticist associates with what he terms population genetics. It is one of the purposes of this presentation to indicate this parallelism in approaches through a consideration of a study of the genetic effects of ionizing radiation in man. While the data to be reported have not previously appeared in the literature, methodology is emphasized here rather than data. 59 references, 3 figures, 11 tables.« less
  • Recently two widely-recognized committees, namely the UNSCEAR and BEIR Committees, have reevaluated their estimates of genetic risks from radiation. Their estimates for gene mutations are based on two different approaches, one being the doubling-dose approach and the other being a new direct approach based on an empirical determination of the amount of dominant induced damage in the skeletons of mice in the first generation following irradiation. The estimates made by these committees are in reasonably good agreement and suggest that the genetic risks from present exposures resulting from nuclear power production are small. There is room for much improvement inmore » the reliability of the risk estimates. The relatively new approach of measuring the amount of induced damage to the mouse skeleton shows great promise of improving knowledge about how changes in the mutation frequency affect the incidence of genetic disorders. Such findings may have considerable influence on genetic risk estimates for radiation and on the development of risk estimates for other less-well-understood environmental mutagens.« less
  • This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, asmore » were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)« less