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Title: Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

Abstract

Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specificationsmore » and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2];  [3]
  1. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States))
  2. (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States))
  3. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1082312
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Energy and Fuels
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal ID: ISSN 0887-0624
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; AIRCRAFT; FUELS; ENGINES; JET ENGINE FUELS; STANDARDS

Citation Formats

Wilson III, George R., Edwards, Tim, Corporan, Edwin, and Freerks, Robert L. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1021/ef301888b.
Wilson III, George R., Edwards, Tim, Corporan, Edwin, & Freerks, Robert L. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components. United States. doi:10.1021/ef301888b.
Wilson III, George R., Edwards, Tim, Corporan, Edwin, and Freerks, Robert L. Tue . "Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components". United States. doi:10.1021/ef301888b.
@article{osti_1082312,
title = {Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components},
author = {Wilson III, George R. and Edwards, Tim and Corporan, Edwin and Freerks, Robert L.},
abstractNote = {Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.},
doi = {10.1021/ef301888b},
journal = {Energy and Fuels},
issn = {0887-0624},
number = ,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {1}
}